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English for Specific Purpose and General English

English for Specific Purpose and General English

 

What is difference between (ESP) English for Specific Purpose and General English?  How Is ESP different to EGP?

Hutchinson et al. (1987:53) answers this quite simply, “in theory nothing, in practice a great deal”. In his time, teachers of General English courses, while acknowledging that students had a specific purpose for studying English, would rarely conduct a needs analysis to find out what was necessary to actually achieve it. Teachers nowadays, however, are much more aware of the importance of needs analysis, and certainly materials writers think very carefully about the goals of learners at all stages of materials production. Perhaps this demonstrates the influence that the ESP approach has had on English teaching in general. Clearly the line between where General English courses stop and ESP courses start has become very vague indeed.

 

Rather ironically, while many General English teachers can be described as using an ESP approach, basing their syllabi on a learner needs analysis and their own specialist knowledge of using English for real communication, it is the majority of so-called ESP teachers that are using an approach furthest from that described above. Instead of conducting interviews with specialists in the field, analyzing the language that is required in the profession, or even conducting students’ needs analysis, many ESP teachers have become slaves of the published textbooks available, unable to evaluate their suitability based on personal experience, and unwilling to do the necessary analysis of difficult specialist texts to verify their contents.

difference between (ESP) English for Specific Purpose and General English

Differences between ESP and EGP

ESP EGP
1. Part of specialization.

(English in Engineering, medical colleges)

2. Aims at restricted competence. (catering to the specific needs)

3. Materials restricted to subject specialization. (‘narrow-angle’)

(linked to learners’ specialization)

4. Small, homogeneous group of learners. (more purposeful)

5. Cost-effective.

(very less money required compared to EGP)

6. Teachers and institutions accountable.

(if the students are not satisfied, they can ask for the refund)

7. ‘Training’ orientation (Training fails if ‘output’ behaviour does not equal ‘input’ instruction)

(Technical Model)

(e.g., ATCs English)

(e.g., good and poor are antonyms)

8. Aims at 100% success.

(efficiency=output/input=1)

9. Trainers and trainees are conversely related (The trainer knows trainees very well, and can better tell the do’s and don’ts.)

10. Aims/Targets/Goals-What learner has to do with language once he has learnt it.(What the trainee has to do, once the course is completed)

1. Part of General Education.

(English in traditional system of education)

2. Aims at general capacity.

(learning English to learn English)

3. Materials based on general texts.

(‘broad angle’) (not linked to the learners’ specialization)

4. Large, heterogeneous group of learners.(serves no purpose)

5. Expensive.

(Money spent on learning English in the years)

6. Teachers and institutions not really accountable.

(e.g., negative incentive for high school teachers in AP)

7. ‘Education’ Orientation

Output does not usually equal input; instruction converted into general principles

(Humanist model)

(e.g., good and bad are antonyms)

8. Results/success not predictable.

(Efficiency=output/input, never = 1.)

9. Teachers and trainees are not conversely related.

(It is difficult for the teacher to know about each learner in the class)

10. Objectives- What learner has to do in order to learn)

(learn English to learn more English or learning to continue learning)

Rajeev Ranjan & Dinesh Chandra Koti

Resourceful books and References:-

  1. English for Specific Purposes (A learning- Centered Approach) by Tom Hutchinson and Alan Waters (1987)
  2. English for Specific Purposes edited by Susan Holden (1977)
  3. English for Specific Purposes ELT documents 101 (1978)
  4. English for Specific Purposes edited by Ronald Mackay and Alan Mountford (1978)
  5. English for Specific Purposes by Pauline Robinson (1980)
  6. Learning Purpose and Language use by HG Widdowson (1983)
  7. English for Specific Purposes by Chris Kennedy and Rod Bolitho (1984)
  8. ESP in perspective (A Practical Guide) by Jo Mc Donough (1984)
  9. Episodes in ESP edited by John Swales (1985)
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English Language Teaching Objective and Learning Outcome at Elementary Stage

English Language Teaching Objective and Learning Outcome at Elementary Stage

Learning Outcomes at Elementary Stage

English language teacher will adopt integrated language teaching approach. We will focus on developing different language skills (Listening, Speaking, Reading, and Writing) and integrated grammar.  The National Curriculum Framework (NCF 2005) provides the framework for developing curriculum and syllabus, textbooks and teaching practices within the school education programmes in India. English teacher should focuses on developing LSRW skills in the classroom. They should focus on developing different language skills and teach integrated English Grammar for developing language accuracy and fluency among students.

Learning should be an enjoyable act where children should feel that they are valued and their voices are heard. The curriculum structure and school should be designed to make school a satisfactory place for students to feel secure and valued. The curriculum should focus on the holistic development of the students. (National Curriculum Framework- 2005) Students should learn following things in an academic year. Primary level is crucial stage for learning. Student learns language very fast in this stage. Teacher should cover all necessary skills for the holistic development of a child. Our objective of teaching English as Second Language will be fulfilled only when Indian students of any corner of country should at least know basic LSRW skills and fundamental grammatical topics according to age group. NCF 2005 discussed the objective of teaching English, “English does not stand alone. The aim of English teaching is the creation of multilinguals who can enrich all our languages; this has been an abiding national vision.” (NCF,2005)

From Class 1st to 6th –English Language Teaching Objective as well as Learning outcome during an academic session

  1. Acquire the skills of listening, speaking, reading, writing and thinking in an integrated manner.
  2. Develop interpersonal communication skills.
  3. Attains basic proficiency like. Developing ability to express one’s thoughts orally and in writing in a meaningful way in English language.
  4. Able to interpret/understand instructions and polite forms of expression & respond meaningfully both orally & in writing.
  5. Develops reference skills both printed & electronic mode.
  6. Acquire varied range of vocabulary; understand increased complexity of sentence structures both in reading and writing.
  7. Able to express an awareness of social and environmental issues.
  8. Ability to read & interpret critically the texts in different contexts-both verbal (including Braille) & pictorial mode.

 

 

 

English Language Teaching Objective and Learning outcome at Elementary Stage

 

 

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Storytelling to Teach Language in the Classroom- Importance and Benefits

Storytelling to teach language in classroom – Importance and Benefits

Wise English language teacher plans interactive and communicative lesson plan for maximize language learning in the classroom.  Teacher uses story to teach the language skills as well as other language components. A story can be used for teaching different language skills and the teacher exploits the lesson with its full length. English language teacher keeps precise and lucid learning objectives. S/he always develops tasks very systematically. S/he designs task from easy to complex. Teacher considers learners’ age, their social background and cultural background, their previous language learning experience and relating their world knowledge to the text. It sustains learner’s interest throughout the class. Teacher uses authentic story to bring the real world in the classroom and the language level of this story is appropriate for this stage.

Teacher uses teaching aids keeping in mind about different kind of the learner, like visual, auditory and kinesthetic. A classroom consists of different types of learner and a good teacher takes into account of all these important factors in mind while making lesson plan for teaching language in the classroom. Teacher uses wonderful techniques for teaching integrated skills, through listening skills vis a vis reading, writing and speaking skills and extends it for teaching language forms and functions , from controlled tasks to free production of language . Teacher uses peer-interaction techniques It provides chance to correct themselves and to get involved in teaching and learning process,  making learners more cooperative and free from teacher’s surveillance. A teacher should guide his students instead of criticizing for their mistakes.

Benefits of using story in a language classroom

Ø It provides natural context for language exploration.

Ø Through stories so many language items can be presented.

Ø Stories have universal appeal.

Ø It fascinates and sustains the interest of the learners in a language classroom.

Ø  Positive learning attitudes can be developed through story telling among learners for learning second/foreign language.

Ø It develops   creative thinking in the learners. Children love fantasy and stories provide so much fantasy which makes a bridge between their own imaginative world and their real worlds.

Ø  Stories stimulate students’ imagination in which they share their ideas in their own language.

Ø Language skills can be developed through stories.

Ø We can teach grammar indirectly by using stories in the classroom.

Ø It develops listening skill as well as concentration skill because children love listen stories very carefully. Children are mischievous, can distract very easily but stories helps to develop their concentration level.

Ø   Children acquire unconsciously certain language items e.g. use of words in certain context, guessing the meaning of the words through context in the story, some sentence patterns, some grammatical items etc.

Ø It provides opportunities for the learners to know about the different cultures, manners, customs etc.

Ø Stories provide connection to learners to their own worldly knowledge with their learning of the English language.

Apart from these advantages of teaching stories in a language classroom, a teacher can use stories for different purposes like group discussion by choosing key word and phrases from the stories, developing dialogue of two characters, giving 3-4 similar title and asking which title do `you find the best for a particular stories etc. Child learns language in a learners’ friendly environment. Story helps the teacher to fill the gap between teacher and students. It develops a kind of intimacy with learners. Learners feel connected with the teacher and the teaching topics.

 

Rajeev Ranjan

Indian Educationist

 

Peer Teaching –Importance and Benefits – Effective Technique for Promoting Joyful Learning

Parent role in developing decision making skill in a child

Benefits of Using Technology in the Classroom

Life Skill Teaching Techniques for Teacher

Role of Textbook in Language Teaching and Learning

English language learning: Importance and benefits of practice and exposure

 

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Role of Textbook in Language Teaching and Learning

 

Role of Textbook in Language Teaching and Learning

Textbooks play a pivotal role in language classrooms in all types of educational institutions – public schools, colleges, and language schools – all over the world. In some contexts, teachers are free to choose their own textbooks. The vast majority of teachers, however, have textbooks suggested, prescribed, or assigned to them (Garinger, 2001). “Textbooks play a very crucial role in the realm of language teaching and learning and are considered the next important factor (element) [italics added] in the second/foreign language classroom after the teacher.” The textbook is a tool in the hands of the teacher, and the teacher must know how to use it, and how useful it can be for everyone. The wealth of published materials for English language teaching (ELT) available in the market makes selecting the right course book a challenging task. Moreover, the selection of a particular core textbook signals an executive educational decision in which there is considerable professional, financial, and even political investment (Sheldon, 1988). Textbooks are a key component in most language programs. In some situations they serve as the basis for much of the language input learners receive and the language practice that occurs in the classroom. They may provide the basis for the content of the lessons, the balance of skills taught and the kinds of language practice the students take part in. In other situations, the textbook may serve primarily to supplement the teacher’s instruction. For learners, the textbook may provide the major source of contact they have with the language apart from input provided by the teacher. In the case of inexperienced teachers textbooks may also serve as a form of teacher training – they provide ideas on how to plan and teach lessons as well as formats that teachers can use. Much of the language teaching that occurs throughout the world today could not take place without the extensive use of commercial textbooks. Learning how to use and adapt textbooks is hence an important part of a teacher’s professional knowledge. (Richards, 2001).

Hutchinson and Torres (1994, p. 232) identify four ways in which textbooks can help in times of educational change: first as “a vehicle for teacher and learner training”; second because they provide “support and relief” from the burden of looking for materials; third by providing “as complete a picture as possible” of “what the change will look like”; and fourth through the psychological support they give to teachers. However, fulfillment of these goals, especially the first and the third, depends on the approach and quality of the textbook. The materials may not be in tune with the new kind of teaching being encouraged, following instead the methodology already commonly being practiced; alternatively, the materials may be so difficult to use that teachers are unable to follow them as intended, making them revert to their previous practice. In either case, rather than agents of change, books will be “agents of conservatism,” reducing the likelihood of teachers trying out new, alternative approaches and methods (Grainger, 2001). So it has great impact at all level of programmes , from policy matter and administrators to teacher and students all rely heavily on textbook to achieve prescribed goals and objectives. The textbook determines the components’ and method of learning. It controls the contents, the method and the procedures of learning.  Students learn what is presented in the textbook, in other words the way the textbook presents materials is the way the students learn it.

In fact the educational philosophy of the textbook influences the class and the learning process. It provides neat and clean platform for it users. Teachers get good readymade activities which provides concrete sample of classroom progress. Sheldon in 1980 identified the reason why the teacher uses textbook. These are as follows:

  • Developing their own classroom material is an extremely difficult process for teachers.
  • They have limited time so to develop new material is difficult due to the nature of their profession.
  • Extreme pressures restrict many teachers: so using text book is one of the most efficient ways of teaching.

Advantages and limitations of a textbook

The use of commercial textbooks in teaching has both advantages and disadvantages, depending on how they are used and the contexts for their use. Among the principal advantages are:

  1. They provide structure and a syllabus for a program.
    Without textbooks a program may have no central core and learners may not receive a syllabus that has been systematically planned and developed.
  2. They help standardize instruction. The use of a textbook in a program can ensure that the students in different classes receive similar content and therefore can be tested in the same way.
  3. They maintain quality. If a well developed textbook is used students are exposed to materials that have been tried and tested, that are based on sound learning principles, and that are paced appropriately.
  4. They provide a variety of learning resources.
    Textbooks are often accompanied by workbooks, CDs and cassettes, videos, CD ROMs, and comprehensive teaching guides, providing a rich and varied resource for teachers and learners.
  5. They are efficient. They save teachers’ time, enabling teachers to devote time to teaching rather than material’s production.
  6. They can provide effective language models and input. Textbooks can provide support for teachers whose first language is not English and who may not be able to generate accurate language input on their own.
  7. They can train teachers. If teachers have limited teaching experience, a textbook together with the teacher’s manual can serve as a medium of initial teacher training.
  8. They are visually appealing. Commercial textbooks usually have high standards of design and production and hence are appealing to learners and teachers.
  9. Economy: A textbook is the cheapest way of providing learning material for each learner.
  10. Convenience: A textbook is a convenient package. It is bound, so that it components stick together and stay in order, it is light and small enough to carry around easily.

However there are also potential negative effects of the use of textbooks. For example:

They may contain inauthentic language.

Textbooks sometimes present inauthentic language since texts, dialogs and other aspects of content tend to be specially written to incorporate teaching points and are often not representative of real language use.

They may distort content.

Textbooks often present an idealized view of the world or fail to represent real issues. In order to make textbooks acceptable in many different contexts controversial topics are avoided and instead an idealized white middle-class view of the world is portrayed as the norm.

They may not reflect students’ needs.

Since textbooks are often written for global markets they often do not reflect the interests and needs of students and hence may require adaptation.

They can deskill teachers.

If teachers use textbooks as the primary source of their teaching leaving the textbook and teacher’s manual to make the major instructional decisions for them the teacher’s role can become reduced to that of a technician whose primarily function is to present materials prepared by others.

They are expensive.

Commercial textbooks may represent a financial burden for students in many parts of the world.

Both the benefits and limitations of the use of textbooks need to be considered, and if the textbooks that are being used in a program are judged to have some negative consequences, remedial action should be taken, e.g. by adapting or supplementing books or by providing appropriate guidance and support for teachers in how to use them appropriately.

So it provides stability for the students or by the will of programme administrative to assure that comparable instruction is being presented across courses. Since textbook plays a major role in language learning and teaching. A textbook is an indispensable tool for the teacher, it is essential for a teacher to be familiar with the different types of textbooks before use. This familiarity with a textbook can be achieved through a critical comparative study of the textbooks vis-avis the syllabus and the underlying philosophy.

Rajeev Ranjan

ELT

Reference

Harmer, J. (1991), The Practice of English Language Teaching, Harlow, Essex: Longman. Hedge, T. (2000), Teaching and Learning in the Language Classroom, Oxford: Oxford University Press. Hidalgo, A., Hall, D. and Jacobs, G. (eds) (1995), Getting Started: Materials Writers on Materials Writing,Singapore:SEAMEO Regional Language Centre. Hunt, R., Neher, B. and Banton, A. (1993), „Planning makes perfect‟, Practical English Teaching 14.1:19-21. Hutchinson, T. and Torres, E. (1994), „The textbook as agent of change‟, ELT Journal 48.4:315-28 Krashen, S. (1985), The Input Hypothesis: Issues and implications. London:Longman. McDonough, J. and Shaw, C. (1993), Materials and Methods in ELT, Oxford: Blackwell.

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English Speaking Skill-Basic English conversation learning for beginners

Learning second language is complex phenomena. Educator needs to provide ample opportunities for learners to practice English speaking in real life situations. Educator should initiate language learning activities through simple to complex.

Educator should help second language learner initially:-

  1. To speak common English words i.e. words related to day to day life
  2. To speak simple sentences in English
  3. To speak with teacher and classmates in English
  4. To speak in English everywhere, school bus, classrooms, playgrounds

Educator should help second language learner at next level

  1. To speak more than a sentence
  2. To speak with proper pronunciation

Educator should help second language learner to speak English in real life situations. We should organize role play in the classroom. Students enjoy a lot and use English during acting several roles. Dialogue helps second language speaker to learn and practice in real life situations. It is a way of promoting language learning for “BEGINNER”

Objective of this course:-

  1. Provide exposure in real life situation
  2. Learn ‘ how to communicate in different situation with different kinds of people
  3. English Speaking through role play is an interesting learning activity
  4. How to conduct:-
  5. Role play
  6. Direct oral practice

 

 

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English Speaking Skill Tips -A Short Story of Sonia

English Speaking Skill Tips
Sonia and Ranjan come from a remote village Mor. Sonia’s father is a farmer and Ranjan’s father is a shopkeeper, however their father feels very happy when they listen that their children are talking in English about school at home. Sonia is so simple girl. She wants to share thoughts and gives speech in the morning assembly. She shares her desire to her math teacher. Her math teacher Niranjan suggests that if you practice to speak in English regularly then you will become the smartest girl of the school. Sonia got nice ideas that firstly she will practice to speak in ENGLISH at the school, secondly she will not hesitate to talk in ENGLISH friends, classmates, and teachers, and thirdly she will not be afraid of others what they think if she speaks wrong sentences or if she picks up wrong words while speaking in English. These ideas gave her confidence. Sonia started speaking in ENGLISH all the time. She started talking in English with friends and teachers even she used to speak in ENGLISH with her friends while returning to home by the school bus. Slowly –slowly Sonia becomes master in communication skill. She conducts assembly, shares thoughts and gives speech on various occasions. Everyone of her class was surprised to see that nowadays Sonia became so much confident. She came first in all the subjects in FA3 examination. Earlier Ranjan used to speak in ENGLISH but nowadays he becomes careless and lazy. Sonia got the best speaker award on FA 3 Award Day Function. She shared the story of her success that in the beginning she faced so many problems i.e. no one speaks English at her home, her friends made fun on her English speaking, sometimes teacher scolded her but she practices, practices and practices to speak in ENGLISH. Be like Sonia—————“Let us communicate in English all the time”””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””

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English language learning: Importance and benefits of practice and exposure

 Language learning is a complex phenomenon.

  Language learning is a complex phenomenon. So learning second language is more complex phenomena. In fact, complex phenomena of the world can be de-complex slowly and gradually. If we care greatly, and slowly move to explore the complexity of the world, the complexities become feasible, so is the case with language learning. The more exposure and practice we get, the more language learning takes place.

Language exposure in a suitable environment: – Does adequate exposure help students to learn a language?

Exposure of certain language in suitable environment is the key point in the language teaching – learning process. Language is meant for communication. Merely knowing the language is not sufficient, if it is not used in day to day life. Use of language for different purposes is another key point in learning a language. The systematic use of language develops at second stage of language learning i.e. appropriate/meaningful sentence, fluency, grammatical accuracy, word- power and punctuation. How much exposure does help in language learning?

If one wants a hands-on experience, be with us. Meet, this is Rehman, a student of class10th, appearing for the SSC board examination.  He writes almost all sentences correctly in the examination with full confidence; ask him to speak three sentences in English; will take 5 minutes time to speak. Don’t be hurry in your judgment; ask him to write 5 sentences, he writes it within seconds. What does it mean? Does he know less English? Or is he a shy to speak before you? What do you think?

He knows English very well but he can’t’ speak English. Because he is exposed to write sentence, doing translation, memorizing words meaning etc. Right from the beginning of schooling, his teacher, parents, made him to do so .He got exposure only in writing and reading, he never exposed to English speaking people. There were no peers to talk in English; even English teacher speaks in his mother tongue in the classroom and in home parents speak in their mother tongue. So there was no exposure at all. It is really pleasure to meet Ankush, a class 6th student of English Medium School in Hyderabad, he speaks English fluently, and however his writing skill is not so good. He got so much exposure everywhere, in society, in school, in home. Exposure does matter in language learning.

When does a child learn language?

When does a child learn language? A child starts learning language in his/her mother’s womb. It is proved in scientific research and even we know it from our religious epic the Mahabharta.  Abhimanyu learnt so much language in his mother’s womb. Can you say that journey of language learning starts right from the mother’s womb? Unconsciously a child has already been acquired some knowledge about a language and the parents, home, society, helps him to bring that unconscious knowledge to the conscious effort of language learning. The way child learns language is very interesting. In early stage, if a child utters a word “mama , pa –papa ” parents encourage his/her to say so repetitively and gradually child picks up language ,i.e. letter , words , sentences , phrases etc. It happens only due to practice and exposure to that language. Child starts learning his mother tongue. Slowly, children get more exposure in mother tongue.

Provide homely environment for maximize language learning: – Do you think so?

The main thing is that the children learn mother tongue in homely environment. What happens when children start to learn second language? Can we provide same environment in the classrooms in teaching –learning situations? We can certainly maximize second language learning in the classroom by providing homely environment in the class.

Role of family and society in learning a language

Language main purpose is to communicate, to convey the message. Home is the first school of language learning. If the parent of a child is well qualified and know more than two languages; child acquires more than two languages very easily. Suppose if a Child’s mother belongs to Gujrat and her mother tongue is Guajarati but she marries to a man from England, naturally child will acquire both languages.  It will also depend on the society, where they reside. If the parents live in Delhi and most of the people in locality speak Hindi, probably the child learns Hindi first than English. Because most of the time he listens Hindi than English. Society also plays important role in the language learning. If a number of people speak particular language in society; child will acquire that language easily e.g., in Goa there were French colonies before independence and till the date French is one of the main language in Goa. School is an important factor in language learning, their peers, and their teachers are most important in their life.

Role of English Language Teacher

Wise language teacher provides ample opportunity for his learners to communicate in English. He knows the importance of communication. We express ourselves in a proper manner, when we know “how to communicate” in English. We learn new language, when we involve in using words and sentences in desired learning language.

If teachers in the school are competent enough in their concern subject, and if their teaching methodology is suitable to the learners, suitable to the present needs of the learners, language learning takes place very soon. My friend Tappu qualified his intermediate level from a government school in Purvanchal district from Uttar Pradesh, India. His English teacher was very good. He used to teach English through structural method because of long tradition of his English teaching. English Teacher Sharma Ji used to teach him rules of grammar as well as translation efficiently. His grammar was fair enough but Tappu could never speak even a single sentence in English in his school days. He completed his Under Graduate Degree (UG) in English Literature from a state university. He got good marks but he hardly spoke in English. It happened because of examination system which was fairly based on writing five long questions therefore it was no need to speak in English. He started speaking in English after 6 month of his study in a reputed Department of English of a University. He practiced well to speak in English and tried to overcome his shyness because everyone in the university campus and hostel used to communicate with each other in English. Gradually I started speaking in English. He got enough exposure in the university campus. Exposure and practice in language learning is crucial factors without it no one can learn language. In fact we cannot learn language in vacuum.

Role of school in language learning

School is the best place where language learning takes place positively. It provides a big platform for each and every learner studying in the school. School provides comprehensive learning platform. Learning is a transmittable act. Positive and negative learning occurs rapidly. We try to learn a new language, when we find that everyone is speaking a same language. School provides a challenge for learner to speak in same language. Each and every stakeholder receives enough input in a language over a period of time. Student takes learning new language in a challenging way; yes I have to speak in English and I will speak in English. He started to practice it with one word, one wrong sentence at early stage but next stage he learnt more than a word or a sentence. Positive learning has been started at this point which leads in the classroom when a teacher delivers lecture in English, and peer communicates in English in the classroom, playground and in the bus while travelling. Students get better exposure and ample opportunities to communicate in English without sense of fear. Students learn English speaking technique very fast up to pre-primary and primary level; however English language learning is happened to be slow after 10-11 years of student. It happens due to learning English as a 2nd and third language. Learning occurs here but progress becomes slow. Notwithstanding, growth is observed in a gradual process.

Role of Textbook in Language Learning: Does a textbook play important role in language learning?

Exposure does matter in language learning. See any textbook prepared by SCERT India. Textbook has been heavily written to develop grammar; notion behind preparing these types of textbooks is that if we give much exposure in grammar children will learn language automatically. Of course it helps at some extent but communicative competence never develops by teaching only grammar in the classroom or outside the classroom. Language learning must be a fun. Children learn so much by play -way method. So language teaching must include so many activities which should be based on play way method. Text book plays crucial role in learning a new language. A standard textbook considers student’s age, social and cultural background positively and develops relationship with learners existing knowledge to provide proper, precise and concrete language learning opportunities for ‘each one teach one’.

Develop learner’s comfort level for learning

We should create such types of activities which involve children directly like role –play, discussion in the classroom etc. These types of activities provide so much exposure and practices. Children feel comfortable in the classroom. When children feel at ease in the classroom they learn so much, they think that they are just talking in the classroom, meanwhile they acquire so much language. Does a textbook play important role in language learning? Yes, a textbook plays crucial role in language learning. It provides ample opportunities for language learning through different tasks.  Now a day’s textbook writers give much importance to develop communicative competence; tasks are communicative and related to real life situations so that learns can use language in the class as well as in daily activity. If the textbook provides ample communicative tasks, children learn so much.

Exposure and practice” are the keys to success. Practices lead to perfection and command on that language and exposure helps to use that language in different contexts, it helps to sharpen that knowledge. Apart from exposure and practices, home, parents, school, teacher, society, textbooks play crucial role in language learning.

Rajeev Ranjan

Indian Educationist