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Project Based Learning-Importance and Benefits in Pedagogical Perspectives

Project Based Learning; a Real Learning Experience

Project Based Learning; a Real Learning Experience” ” is an integrated learning approach. A project is meaningful if it fulfills two criteria. First, students must perceive it as personally meaningful, as a task that matters and that they want to do well. Second, a meaningful project fulfills an educational purpose. Well-designed and well-implemented PBL—————————–

Project Based Learning; a Real Learning Experience- Introduction

 A systemic teaching method that engages students in learning essential knowledge and skills through an extended, student-influenced inquiry process structured around complex, authentic questions and carefully designed tasks and products.   In other words, a task or problem engaged in usually by a group of students to supplement and apply classroom studies. It is considered as an alternative to paper-based, rote memorization, teacher-led classrooms.

Proponents of project-based learning cite numerous benefits to the implementation of these strategies in the classroom including a greater depth of understanding of concepts, broader knowledge base, improved communication and interpersonal/social skills, enhanced leadership skills, increased creativity, and improved writing skills.

“When teachers and their students are “connected” through project based learning, the “world” becomes an indispensable curriculum resource.”-(NCF 2005)  Teachers are no longer their students’ primary sources of information. Instead, they are the designers of learning who created the conditions for the students to conduct their own inquiries, and advisers to whom learners can come as they create their product. It is in fact, also known as inquiry-based learning /inquiry-based learning, and problem-based learning.  Initially, John Dewey promoted the idea of “learning by doing in ‘My Pedagogical Creed’. It was popular at the beginning of the 20th century and again in the current century. Project-based learning has been associated with the “situated learning” perspective of James G. Greeno (2006) and on the constructivist theories of Jean Piaget.

Today, teachers around the world are designing projects for their students because they ignite a shared passion for learning in both students and staff; they foster a wide range of skills (such as time management, collaboration, and problem solving) that students will need at school, college, university, and in the workplace; and they can be tailored to suit students with a wide range of abilities and learning needs. Fortunately, designing projects help students to master the content which they are required to learn. The best way to do this is by using ‘backwards planning’. (The Teacher’s Guide to Project-based Learning). PBL provides a new life experience for collaborative learning i.e. how to share, care and come out from real situation of conflict (working in group) where a certain number of people is working to achieve a single goal.

 

 Objective of Project Based Learning mentioned in (Project-Based Learning ,  A  Resource for Instructors and Program Coordinators, National Academy Foundation and Pearson Foundation). Project based classroom is dynamic and interactive. Teacher is an active learner and facilitator. It starts with a problem, facts and skills in a relevant context.

 Well-designed projects ask students to:

  • Tackle real problems and issues that have importance to people beyond the classroom. Projects emanate from issues of real importance to students and adults in the community and answer the age-old student question “Why do we need to know this?”
  • Actively engage in their learning and make important choices during the project.

Projects make room for student choice and creativity while still demanding student mastery of essential content, enabling students and teachers to interact as co-learners in the experience, rather than in the traditional student-teacher relationship.

  • Demonstrate in tangible ways that they have learned key concepts and skills.

Projects provide opportunities for students to produce observable evidence that they have mastered rigorous curricular standards as they apply their learning and solve the problem at hand.  PBL empowers students with life skills i.e.  critical thinking, problem solving, decision making, and various forms of learning skills. Projects and exhibitions also provide extensive evidence of process work and self-directed learning. 

Key Points of Project Based Learning:-

  1. A project is meaningful if it fulfils two criteria. First, students must perceive it as personally meaningful, as a task that matters and that they want to do well. Second, a meaningful project fulfils an educational purpose. Well-designed and well-implemented Project Based Learning (PBL) is meaningful in both ways.
  2. In terms of making a project feel meaningful to students, the more voice and choice, the better.
  3. Teachers should design projects with the extent of student choice that fits their own style and students. On the “the more the better” end of the scale, students can decide following points:
  4. What product they will create?
  5. What resources they will use?
  6. How they will structure their time?
  7. “PBL integrates knowing and doing. Students learn knowledge and elements of the core curriculum, but also apply what they know to solve authentic problems and produce results that matter.” Markham (2011)
  8. ‘PBL refers to students designing, planning, and carrying out an extended project that produces a publicly-exhibited output such as a product, publication, or presentation.
  9. PBL emphasizes learning activities that are long-term, interdisciplinary and student-centered.
  10. PBL differs from traditional inquiry by its emphasis on students’ collaborative or individual artefact construction to represent what is being learned.
  11. PBL organizes around an open-ended driving question or challenge.
  12. PBL project plan should include the essential curriculum content for the project.
  13. PBL promotes critical thinking, problem solving, collaboration, and various forms of communication, often known as “21st Century Skills.
  14. PBL promotes students to use technology in meaningful ways to help them investigate, collaborate, analyze, synthesizes and presents their learning.
  15. PBL is an effective strategy for teaching complex skills such as planning, communicating, problem solving, and decision making. ( Dr. John W. Thomas, 2000)
  16. PBL can help increase student attendance, attitude, and self-reliance. For teachers, PBL can help increase professionalism and collaboration. ( Dr. John W. Thomas, 2000)
  17. Role of student is to ask questions, build knowledge, and determine a real-world solution to the issue/question presented. PBL allows them to think rationally on how to solve problems. PBL forces students to take ownership of their success.
  18. Collecting information
  19. Developing question
  • Exploring material and discussing outcome with peers
  1. Reflecting on the result
  2. Role of teacher Project Based Learning is that of a facilitator. The instructor regulates students and ensures that students should remain focused and have a deep understanding of the concepts being investigated. The students are held accountable to these goals through ongoing feedback and assessments. We always face challenges while implementing a concept and learning new things. PBL is students’ friendly learning approach under kind guidance of a teacher to involve students in working on tasks. However, there is several questions arise for implementing PBL in real life teaching learning situation. We can also see the teachers’ role in following areas.
  3. Offer guidance on subject/theme/topic
  4. Formation of different types of learner and their performance level
  • Holding meeting for further course of action
  1. Facilitating learners in different layers of project

Teachers can also meditate on following points:-

  1. Will this project engage my students?

The Learning Futures schools use a checklist to gauge the likely engagement of students in any given project idea. We call it ‘the Four Ps of Deep Engagement’. Before going too far with an idea for a project ask yourself whether the project is:

  • Placed – is it located in a place that is important to students (e.g. their home, community, town, city or virtual environment)?
  • Purposeful – will it result in a product, service or body of knowledge that others will make use of? Will the process seem authentic to students?
  • Pervasive – will students be sufficiently engaged in the project’s activities that they’ll want to voluntarily take the learning outside school and school hours? Is it likely to broaden students’ horizons?
  • Passion-led – Does the project tap into students’ passions?
  1. Will this project engage me?

It’s important that facilitator is personally curious and involve about the project’s outcome, that s/he will learn new things from it.

  1. Will my students learn something meaningful from this project?

It’s a good idea to make a list of the things you expect your students to have learned: this should include subject content, skills, as well as attributes to be developed (e.g. confidence, resilience, and resourcefulness).( The Learning Futures school)   

During the project planning phase, teachers must make sure that the project will result in student-generated evidence of learning that aligns closely with intended skill and content standards. (National Academy Foundation and Pearson Foundation)

 Integration of Inter- Disciplinary Subjects

PBL promotes integrated learning approach in this fast growing world where technological integration requires at every step of learning. It is combined learning approach where we can integrate different subjects into one project work i.e. a language teacher asks students to prepare a project on ‘bird migration’. He enquirers other subject teacher that, is there a lesson related to nature/environment or other interdisciplinary theme or not in respective subjects. He finds several correlated lessons in different subjects. He finds that students can get good ideas from subject English (unit –Environment), Science (Diversity in Living Organism), Social Science (Natural Vegetation and Wild Life) and Mathematics (Statics). (PBL, CBSE) Teacher guides his students to collect the material/content from different subjects, students collect ideas which help student to work on the given project. This activity increases not only interest of students to read other subjects but also to give equal importance to all subjects.   PBL approach provides opportunity for the teacher to become a facilitator in real sense. He becomes the torch bearer in developing tools and techniques on how to examine and analyze issue, the information they need to collect, planning, organizing the framework of the project. The projected action will be initiated by the students.

 Difference between “Activity” and “Project”

There is much confusion among teacher about the difference between ‘activity’ and ‘project’ in regular teaching learning process. Project based learning guide developed by National Academy Foundation and Pearson Foundation clearly mentioned the difference i.e.

ACTIVITY PROJECT
Students in a history class study Westward Expansion for three weeks, culminating with a “Frontier Feast” where students dress in period costumes and eat typical western fare from the era.

 

Students in a history class spend three weeks focused on the essential question “How did Westward Expansion impact our community?” Students learn about the period, research local connections, and design a museum exhibit featuring historical artifacts, primary source documents, and expert commentary from local historians. The exhibit is mounted in the community center lobby, and students serve as docents to the general public.

 

 Advantages of Project Based Learning:

  1. Rivet & Krajcki, 2004 and William & Linn, 2003 state that “research has demonstrated that students in project-based learning classrooms get higher scores than students in traditional classroom.”
  2. PBL develops responsibility, or ownership among students for their learning, their self-esteem soars. It also helps to create better work habits and attitudes toward learning.
  3. Project-Based Learning students also learn skills that are essential in higher education.
  4. PBL allows pupils to expand their minds and think beyond what they normally would.
  5. Project-Based Learning students learn skills, in fact, more than just finding answers.

 Disadvantages of Project Based Learning:-

Unplanned lessons can result in the wasting of precious class time. If the project does not remain on task and content driven the student will not be successful in learning the material.

 Assessment in Project Based Learning:-

 Assessment isn’t just about the final product.  In fact, final assessment will focus on the products that students have produced, and how they went about producing them (the process). Despite this, it is worth enough to remember that not everybody needs to produce the same product in order to demonstrate their learning. Questions that final assessment should address are followings:-

  1. Does the product meet or exceed the criteria we set at the start at the project?
  2. Has the student developed the skills required for the execution of this project?
  3. Has the student learned the curriculum content required for this project?

Ron Berger rightly states that real assessment take place when a teacher is minute observer and observes his students holistically. Teachers often mistakenly presume that a project’s final product is the only thing they should assess, which leads them to assume that they should be able to tell whether the kids learned what they needed to learn by looking at the final product.

Actually, assessing what kids know is ongoing throughout a project. The product is the motivation for learning the material, but it won’t demonstrate that they learned it all. For example, in the physics standards project, each kid only demonstrated one physics concept, so how do you know that they learned the rest of the material?

The answer to this question is that the book isn’t the assessment. You can assess what they’ve learned before the book comes out, and afterwards. In Physics Standards they gave all the students a physics test with all the concepts in it. You need to do assessment throughout the project so that when they’re doing great artistic stuff, you know that they know what they need to know. You can’t leave it all to the end.

(Ron Berger, Chief Programme Officer, Expeditionary Learning)

Conclusion:

Blumenfeld et al. says that, “Project-based learning is a comprehensive perspective focused on teaching by engaging students in investigation. Within this framework, students pursue solutions to nontrivial problems by asking and refining questions, debating ideas, making predictions, designing plans and/or experiments, collecting and analyzing data, drawing conclusions, communicating their ideas and findings to others, asking new questions, and creating artefacts. Projects vary greatly in the depth of the questions explored, the clarity of the learning goals, the content and structure of the activity, and guidance from the teacher.

 The core idea of project-based learning is that real-world problems capture students’ interest and provoke serious thinking as the students acquire and apply new knowledge in a problem-solving context. The teacher plays the role of facilitator, working with students to frame worthwhile questions, structuring meaningful tasks, coaching both knowledge development and social skills, and carefully assessing what students have learned from the experience.

 Researched and Prepared by

Rajeev Ranjan

Principal

B.Ed(English)

Post Graduate Diploma in Teaching English (PGDTE)

English and Foreign Languages University, Hyderabad

&

BA & MA (English)

Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi

www.rajeevranjan.net

Email .Id: rajeevbhuvns@gmail.com

 References and resources for further reading:-

Article, 7 Essentials for Project-Based Learning(John Larmer , John R. Mergerndoller, In Educational Leadership, Buck Institute of Education)

The Buck Institute for Education (http://www.bie.org/)

Using Project-Based Learning to Increase Student Engagement and Understanding March 2012(TEXAS INSTRUMENT)

Project-Based Learning,  A  Resource for Instructors and Program Coordinators(National Academy Foundation and Pearson Foundation)

PBL is consistent with best practices in instructional design. To learn more, visit ASCD’s Understanding by Design Exchange. (http://www.ubdexchange.org/default.html)

PBL as an instructional strategy to create rigorous and relevant learning experiences by Dr. John W. Thomas’s (http://www.bobpearlman.org/BestPractices/PBL_Research.pdf)

Stanford University’s School Redesign Network includes links to many resources that help define and understand PBL. (http://www.schoolredesign.net/srn/server.php?idx=850).

The Small Schools Project boasts an amazing collection of resources to assist those educators creating small learning communities and small schools where PBL can thrive. (http://smallschoolsproject.org/)

The High Tech High network features schools designed to support PBL in the classroom.

(http://www.hightechhigh.org/)

Project Examples

PBL at NAF, Digital Storytelling for Academy Students and Instructors

(http://pearsonfoundation.org/NAF) The NAF/Pearson Foundation Digital Storytelling Project is modelled on exemplary PBL principles.

What Kids Can Do (http://www.whatkidscando.org/index.asp) This national nonprofit organization focused on student voice has links to several outstanding projects in their “projects and products” section (under “Student Work & Voice”).

STEPs (link to http://itd.usd259.org/steps/pbl.htm) The Standards for Teachers through Educational Projects site includes video downloads of exemplary projects.

Edutopia – The George Lucas Educational Foundation (http://www.edutopia.org/) The George Lucas Educational Foundation’s includes video clips highlighting exemplary projects.

Great Student Work (http://www.bobpearlman.org/BestPractices/StudentWork.htm)  Educational reform expert Bob Pearlman offers links to exceptional project examples and assessments from around the globe.

Best Wishes

 

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Use of Technology- Benefits of Using Appropriate Teaching Materials in the Classroom

Use of Technology- Benefits of Using Appropriate Teaching Materials in the Classroom

Technology is necessity of 21st century people. Our life is incomplete without technology. Technology helps us to grow physically, mentally and socially. Technology helps us to connect with each other. We are virtually attached with each other. We sense a real emotional bonding with each other. Widely availability of Desktop and Laptop in last decades ensured that technology is for everyone. Common people were excited to learn “how to operate it and how to use it”. Gradual development of Smart phone makes the task easy. Now people use Smartphone smartly. Of course, it is difficult to keep ourselves away from Smart phone even for short time. We feel a sense of incompleteness without Smartphone. Child starts feeling the importance of technology in life.

Integration of technology in the classroom for teaching learning process is essential and effective. Technology becomes integral part of education system. Wise teacher uses technology to ensure proper learning in the classroom. Teacher feels comfortable with technology. Student finds technology very useful for developing better understanding of different subject. Technological tools ensure effective teaching learning in the classroom.

Search engines give best result in fractions of second. Teachers as well as students face great difficulty in choosing appropriate content for the concerned topic. What can be the best ideas for selecting appropriate content for rational learning? What should be crucial factors for choosing right content? How can someone ensure the best learning outcome with the help of technology in the classroom?

People from all over world are uploading numerous teaching learning materials in various form i.e. Pdf, Word doc, images, videos and power point presentation through various platforms i.e. Slide share, YouTube etc. Without making familiar with the teaching materials before discussing/displaying and distributing can be the biggest chaos in the classroom.  We should be active, alert and sensible when we decide the content for teaching and learning process.

Students’ learning need

Learners are at the center in our teaching learning process.  A wise teacher considers students’ learning need before using technology in the classroom. If we decided to use technology in the classroom, we should consider “What is our students’ need? When we consider our students need, we consider on various factors which really hamper the students’ learning in the classroom.  Use of appropriate teaching online/offline/printed/softcopy etc increases students’ engagement and motivation; moreover it speed up learning experience in the classroom.

 Difficulty level of content/topic/text’s concept

Learning is a complex phenomenon. Technology supports our educational systems to enhance students’ learning experience through various technological tools. A well designed curriculum and syllabus cater the need of a nation. A well developed syllabus caters individual need in correspondence with culture. A wise teacher decides the difficulty level of content/topic/ text concept. S/he finds out materials through various available sources which fulfils the current need of students.

Students’ previous knowledge of content/topic/text

What is use of using technology in the classroom if we fail to evaluate our students’ previous knowledge of current teaching topic? Considering previous knowledge of our students help a teacher to decide appropriate teaching materials from where students can co-relate their existing knowledge with current teaching topic, from where they can proceed to the next level of learning.

Appropriate to students’ understanding level

A classroom consists of different types of learners’ i.e. slow learner, gifted learner and average learners. Their understanding level differs for various reasons. When we select supporting resource materials for the learners in the classroom, our resource materials should be able to fulfil mix groups of learners. A wise teacher considers his students’ level of understanding before using any technological tools and web materials in a classroom. Our main purpose to use technology in the classroom fulfill only when we cater the understanding level of each and everyone i.e. an English language teacher does intensive research before using appropriate teaching resource before entering in the classroom.

Appropriate to local learning environment (Social/Economical/National)

Every state and nation has its own cultures. A video on learning grammatical items on You Tube may be best suitable to America, Britain but may not be appropriate to China. Wise teacher uses appropriate resource materials for in a technology enabled classroom to maximize students’ learning experiences. A story from America may not be suitable to Indian students due to various reasons i.e. Name, surroundings, cultural background and language competency. A wise teacher customizes resources materials in a technology enabled classroom.

Appropriate language according to students’ level

Language is essential vehicle to learn new things. Age appropriate, understanding level appropriate and cultural appropriate language can enhance learning experiences in the classroom. What is use of using a Received Pronunciation (RP) and International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) enabled video in an Indian government school located in a remote area? Students uses mother tongue in the classroom. What is use of using printed materials consist of high standard words and sentences in a technological enable classroom? Our main objective to use technology in the classroom is to enhance students’ learning. Wise teacher assesses the appropriateness of resource materials language before using in the classroom.

Decide the content and practice well presenting before student

Choosing appropriate content and practice well before entering in the classroom establishes a teacher as fine person. Students take it positively. It helps teacher to manage the classroom systematically. What to do before entering in the classroom for using technology for maximizing learning and developing depth understanding of a particular teaching topic? Wise teacher selects appropriate different teaching resources for the classroom. S/he studies in depth. Teacher watches video in advance if s/he shows a video from You Tube and any other downloaded video. S/he prepares her classroom strategies i.e. how to use materials, when she will engage students, when she will ask questions, when she will conduct the assessment test etc to avoid confusing moment in the classroom. It is observed several times that a teacher has planned to show a power point presentation in the classroom but due to some technical reasons, he could not show it to the students, so it is better to keep materials in printed form if it is possible.

  • Read the text in depth
  • Watch the video in advance
  • Make your strategies to use material
  • Keep material in printed form if possible

Right preparation and proper planning maximize learning in the classroom. Teacher develops a better understanding for difficult topics with the help of technology in the classroom. Students always enjoy a wise subject teacher class.  So what ! Are you a wise teacher? Aren’t ——————–

Rajeev Ranjan

Indian Educationist

Benefits of Using Technology in the Classroom

 

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English Language Teaching Objective and Learning Outcome at Elementary Stage

English Language Teaching Objective and Learning Outcome at Elementary Stage

Learning Outcomes at Elementary Stage

English language teacher will adopt integrated language teaching approach. We will focus on developing different language skills (Listening, Speaking, Reading, and Writing) and integrated grammar.  The National Curriculum Framework (NCF 2005) provides the framework for developing curriculum and syllabus, textbooks and teaching practices within the school education programmes in India. English teacher should focuses on developing LSRW skills in the classroom. They should focus on developing different language skills and teach integrated English Grammar for developing language accuracy and fluency among students.

Learning should be an enjoyable act where children should feel that they are valued and their voices are heard. The curriculum structure and school should be designed to make school a satisfactory place for students to feel secure and valued. The curriculum should focus on the holistic development of the students. (National Curriculum Framework- 2005) Students should learn following things in an academic year. Primary level is crucial stage for learning. Student learns language very fast in this stage. Teacher should cover all necessary skills for the holistic development of a child. Our objective of teaching English as Second Language will be fulfilled only when Indian students of any corner of country should at least know basic LSRW skills and fundamental grammatical topics according to age group. NCF 2005 discussed the objective of teaching English, “English does not stand alone. The aim of English teaching is the creation of multilinguals who can enrich all our languages; this has been an abiding national vision.” (NCF,2005)

From Class 1st to 6th –English Language Teaching Objective as well as Learning outcome during an academic session

  1. Acquire the skills of listening, speaking, reading, writing and thinking in an integrated manner.
  2. Develop interpersonal communication skills.
  3. Attains basic proficiency like. Developing ability to express one’s thoughts orally and in writing in a meaningful way in English language.
  4. Able to interpret/understand instructions and polite forms of expression & respond meaningfully both orally & in writing.
  5. Develops reference skills both printed & electronic mode.
  6. Acquire varied range of vocabulary; understand increased complexity of sentence structures both in reading and writing.
  7. Able to express an awareness of social and environmental issues.
  8. Ability to read & interpret critically the texts in different contexts-both verbal (including Braille) & pictorial mode.

 

 

 

English Language Teaching Objective and Learning outcome at Elementary Stage

 

 

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Weak Students Facts and Factors

 

Nobody is inferior and nobody is superior. We are unique. No palm line and no thumb impression are same in this world. Every child is unique. Every child’s learning style is unique. Thousand of factors effect child’s learning habit.

Root cause of students’ weak academic performance may be related to academic or non-academic.

  • Premature birth of a child

Generally it has been observed that premature birth of a child may cause slow mental and physical growth.

  • Unnatural growth of a child i.e. late walker, late talker

Holistic development of a child depends on various factors. It is observed that if a child has been growing physically as well as mentally as a natural growth cycle, then proper guidance leads a student towards a good learner. So many children may be late walker and late talker. Sometimes it may affect student’s academic performance if a parent fails to provide proper guidance right from early stage. At early stage child does not perform as per as normal child and become leveled  as weak students, however in so many cases symptoms of weak learning ability at early stage may be converted  into a good learner if s/he gets proper care, attention and guidance at home.

  • Intensive and excessive shelter from parent –wish in hand

Due to rapid changing life styles and copied life styles parents try to provide each and every possible facility to their children. Parents protect their children; accept their misbehavior and non academic activities as fun or may be childish nature, but parent is not aware that children are framing and forming all these activities as solid habit/behavior. Child knows his/her power. Child starts managing his/her father and every point of time s/he shows a negative behavior. Formation of negative habit and attitude prohibited a child to develop an interest in academic activities. S/he may be very fast in using Smart phone and other sophisticated electronic gadgets but become a non academic performer.

  • Parental problems(dispute between mother & father, divorce case, working parent , face mental trauma due to various problematic reasons at home)

One out of 100 students one student can be self made in a school. His determination to do something great in life unhampered and undisturbed by the parenting styles, otherwise parenting plays a crucial role in forming and framing positive learning attitude. Parental problems obstruct proper mental development of a child. A child remains a child in his childhood but s/he is a minute observer and s/he watches his parents’ day to day activities (a) manner of communication at home (b) behavior for other family members (c) mental, physical, social and economical problems faced by parents (d) parental care at home etc. Child becomes a conflict personality. S/he wants to express but to whom may be a big question for a child. Child could not concentrate on academic activities because his mind does feel at ease and peace anywhere.

  • Lack of care at home (due to various reasons)

Learning is a complex phenomenon. Child considers academic learning as a difficult task. Proper parental guidance and caring help child to become active and alert for learning something new but if a parent fails to do proper care at home, child could not cope with present teaching and learning activities. Learning activities becomes too tough to handle. Child starts looking academic activities as boring and learning too much uninterested tasks in his life.

  • May be younger than rest of the class

Generally it has been observed in a few cases that parent took admission in higher classes that does not suits the child age but parent thinks that his/her child is very smart, s/he will cope up easily but child fails to cope up with present syllabus and curriculum.  Ms Ayushi was admitted in KG1 in a reputed school of a town. School management promised with parent that your child will be sent to class first in next academic session. Parent was so rigid to send his daughter in class 1st. After so many counseling session with parent to send his child into to next class KG 2; parent threatened school to fulfill his promise otherwise he will withdraw her admission. Since it was new school and one of the parents’s known person helped him to admit in class 1st.  Ms Ayusi was very shy and introvert girl. She did not speak with teacher in 1st 3 months of academic session. Several noticeable behavior observed by the teacher (a) did not talk to teacher in the class (b) was not bringing notebook and book on daily basis (c) always keep head down in the classroom (d) used to spend too much time in washroom. It was not the fault of child but the completely fault of parent but child suffered whole academic year which were resulted in poor academic performance, poor self image and low confidence. She was younger than her classmates.

  • Lack of understanding the language of text(Unable to read properly and face difficulty in understand meaning of text

Wise teacher and parent develop student reading skill properly. Basically language helps a child to express his emotion, passion and knowledge rationally which develops confidence in a child.  Teacher focuses on speaking and reading skill. If a child is weak in speaking and reading, it may be possible that gradually s/he may be identified as weak learner.

  • Frequently absent from the class due to various reason

Curriculum is designed properly and accurately based on available men, method and materials which we need to learn in systematically in one academic session. If a child misses one day in the class room which increases burden of a child. Child has to face two current challenges (i) s/he has to complete yesterday’s homework and class work by today and also to learn new thing which has been taught by the teacher in today classroom. If a child becomes lazy and linger to complete the topic, these untouched topics with other learning lesson create a havoc and stress on a child. Now child develops a habit of delaying the designed task and gradually child becomes weak learner.

  • Health problems

If a child is suffering from a disease or falls ill very often then child face a mental traumatic situation to fill the gap of learning. Child starts neglecting various learning topics and frames a negative attitude towards learning which resulted in weak academic performance.

  • School environment

We heard a proverb, “friendship makes a man wise”. Only two things bring a massive change in an individual’s life (1) education (2) friendship. School provides a strong platform for learning. An individual gets proper education and friends in a school. School environment plays crucial role for holistic development of a child. Good education and good friend lay the foundation of an integrated personality. If anyone misses in a school, child becomes an academic poor performer. Child becomes a torn and conflicted personality.

  • Bad company(become a member of non –academic group)

 

एक एक दोस्त की प्रकृति दूसरे मित्र के व्यक्तित्व को प्रभावित करती है.  The nature of a friend affects the other friend’s personality. It affects both the ways.  A person with negative attitude scatters negativity in his surrounding and a person with positive attitude spreads the fragrance of positivity in his surroundings. If a child develops a strong bond with negative students, gradually he also learns negative habits and manner. Initially it may increase slowly but further it becomes his nature. A negative child’s bad company has adverse effect on other child personality. Bad friendship works like a slow poison in holistic development of child.

Lack of interest in academics (reading, writing, mathematics)

Learning is always difficult but when we talk about academic learning then it is too much difficult. A child can take challenge to reach highest score in a game but the moment learning topic is slight difficult to learn the students leave that topic at that point only. Nowadays it is too much difficult task for a parent to develop a habit of sitting at a place and perform all necessary academic work i.e. reading, writing, and learning. These are basically system oriented problems. Students do not want to do hard and parent does not give proper attention right from the beginning. If a child does not show interest in a particular subject, parent cannot linger it for a long time otherwise child forms a negative attitude towards learning.

  • Boring lesson by less motivated educator/ poor teaching techniques

Teacher brings massive change in a child’s life but if a teacher teaches a lesson uninterestedly, child forms a negative learning attitude. If a teacher uses poor teaching techniques then child shows less interest in learning those subjects’ topics. Teacher is equally responsible for poor academic performance of a child.

  • Error threatening environment (developing a negative attitude “better to excuse”)

Since learning is difficult phenomena, a child should be under keen observation of a parent and a teacher. Parent and teacher’s keen observation helps a child to grow in a proper direction. Too much observation and checks may develop a sense of rigidness. Too many checks may create error threatening environment for a child. Wise parent’s keen observation, vigilant nature and proper guidance help a child to grow as an integrated personality. When a child faces so much threaten, s/he may develop a negative learning attitude and may always give so many excuses for poor academic performance.

Many more reasons (Pupil, Parent, Teacher, Society or other stakeholder)

A child academic performance depends on thousand of factor i.e. students self learning desire, parenting, and various stakeholder of an educational institute. Child academic performance improves if all stakeholders work for the holistic development of a child.

Holistic developments of a child depend on his parent ways of upbringing.  In fact, a child is never ever less than other child.

एक बच्चे का समग्र विकास उनके माता-पिता के पालन-पोषण के तरीकों पर निर्भर करता है। वास्तव में, एक बच्चा कभी दूसरे बच्चे से कम नहीं होता है।

Rajeev Ranjan

Indian Educationist

Student Misbehavior- Is parent responsible for children’s bad behavior ?

Winner and loser-amazing answers by school children-a real life experience

Weak Students-Tips for Teacher and Parent

Life Skills Teaching-Learning -Beneficial for Holistic Development of Child

 

Teaching Human Values- Importance of Developing Essential Values Among Students

Characteristic of weak students in the classroom

 

 

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Sex Education: Challenge for 21st Century Globalized World-Its Importance and Benefits

Sex Education 

We think ! so we want to know each and everything in our life. We wish to explore our knowledge in different directions. We face different difficulties at different stages in our life. If there is a difficult situation; certainly there is a solution. Living in a globalized world, thinking in a globalized way and changing life styles put different challenges before us. Our life essence is actively involved, engaged and incorporated in a new world (World Wide Web). Life style has been changing. There is no full stop. We do understand it but sometime and somewhere we stuck in a dilemma. We could not make a final way to get solution. We stuck with personal values, religious values, social as well as national cultural ethics.

Sex education is a crucial issue before us. We have initiated to impart sex education right from childhood but we have a long way to go for preparing, planning and execution at right time and at right age. Sex education is demand of time without making a difference among several cultural and national issues. I firmly believe that a child remains a child in all four corner of the world. Their instinct and passion to learn new things, investigate new things and explore new things are almost same. It does not matter that a child belongs to Washington, Paris, London as well as remote part of developing nations. Their parent may be well educated and may be illiterate but they are using more or less same technology. Integration of technology in our life fills the gap among different culture, caste and creeds.

When it comes to provide “sex education”, we have different views, concepts and perspectives. The word “sex” becomes a big headache for parent and society. No doubt at all, almost all of us may have faced same dilemma but we have to accept this challenge to educate our kids, to aware our kids and sensitize our kids about the value of word “sex” in a wider perspective. It is essence of life. We can cover, conceal and hide about “sex”  but cannot ignore and avoid it in our life; therefore global citizen needs to develop global perspective and global acceptance for providing “sex education” for the welfare of 21st century young generation.   

 

The word “sex” has magnetic effect.  It attracts every single living being. We can sensitize about the effect of a magnet. We can sensitize about nature of a magnet but we cannot stop the magnetic effect when iron comes near to a magnet. The word “sex” itself is very attractive and attention seeker from the time of our origin. To educate globalized children about “sex’ is the sole solution of various problems. Education leads all of us from dark side of life to bright side of life.

Mrs. Sharma was talking to her 9 years old son Mr. Ashu about school tour. Ashu was talking very excitedly and describing each and every moments in details.  He was confused. He was baffled after watching a movie just before 20 minutes. Leading lady character of movie gave a birth to a new baby. Ashu was only one child of his parent and requested his mother to give him a sister. Ashu was confused and wanted to ask his mother about how a baby comes on the earth. Mrs. Sharma faced doubled dilemma to give a rational answer. Simply she said, “God sends the baby on the earth”. She was not satisfied with answer but thought that he will forget it. Ashu was a brilliant child. He searched on Google about born of a new baby. He watched so many videos and shared it with his mother and father. Parent has no answer to give but to avoid eyes contact with his son.

We handle 21st century Android apps enabled generation. Kids love to spend more time on Electronic gadgets. They know intentionally and unintentionally so many existing facts. Parent tries to hide it but child tries to explore it. We are unique individuals. We have instinct of learning. Can we stop our child to investigate and explore the world of knowledge? Nowadays, 21st century apps enabled generation inquires first on internet than consult a parent.

Ms. Sobhna studies in class 7th. She was studying about Mammals. There was a context of breast feeding.  She typed breast feeding and the moment she entered the key words, so many links were before her eyes. She was sitting beside her classmate Rohan. She was completely shocked and could not make eye contact with her classmate. It was very disgusting and embarrassing situation for her.

Living in an era of globalization, we need to understand the changing trend across the world. Technology has become fundamental need for human society. In fact, technology is the best companion of today’s world. Earlier parent was the main source of knowledge  but integration of sophisticated technology in our life changes our life styles. Basic life concepts do not change at same speed as we get most updated version of apps in a short span. Parent, elder members of family, teacher, principal, and counselor still struggle to talk rationally and reply relevant answer, if a child from age 5 to 13-15 asks “sex” related questions. It may be related to child’s physical changes or it may be related to sex i.e. intercourse, sex, breast, bra, puberty, condom, period etc. Parent and teacher feel awkward, embarrassed, surprised, shocked and hatred. Parent and teacher do not give rational and relevant answer. We do not know; to whom we are trying to hide/ to whom we are trying to deviate from center. Technology opens the dark doors of life. Parent may be poor, illiterate, intellectual and educated but their child has access of high internet speed enabled smart phone. Several questions hunt in our mind. Do you think so?

What do we want to hide? Do we ignore the fact that child explores his doubt faster than us? Do we keep ourselves in an illusionary world? It may be possible that if you hide sex related facts from child, they may visit wrong sites on World Wide Web (WWW). Do we not wish that our child should safe and secure? Do we not wish proper health and hygiene for our child? What is wrong if we satisfy the quest of our child in a proper manner? Can we stop the hurricane?

Sexual world is like hurricane, typhoon and twister for a child. It is burring Volcano within  a child. Children are looking forward towards us to get rational and relevant answers and we assume that deviating from the topic will create forgetfulness. Volcano can be explode and may create a negative impact on physical and mental strain on child’s mind.

Children are very inquiring, inquisitive and curious to explore all the facts which their parent tries to hide. Wise parent develop a sense of trust to avoid major mental strain on child’s mind. We had have faced mental trauma, when we had faced pain and pangs of physical changes. We were unable to share with someone. We were innocent to feel the reason behind our pains. We used to share with our friend with loads of hesitation and we had not got rational and relevant answer. Sex and sexual life were a big charm for us; although we had not known so much. Our Friends were only source to share right/wrong information/issues related to sex and sexual life; either personal or others. 1990s decade child used to explore sex and sexual life related issues from a low cost magazine (cheap literature) and a special corner of newspaper which used to deal especially with sexual problems once in a week. We used to read it very carefully so that elder members in the family could not find us. We are 1980-90s born parents. We have our own kids. We belong to a generation who were not aware about a condom. We used to buy a condom (20 paisa each) from a Gupta General Store for using it as a balloon. We used to puff it or fill the water in the Ganaga River and playing like a ball. We enjoyed the essence of childhood. No one reminded us that what we were using; was basically a condom not a balloon. We should reflect on our own confused state of mind. We should develop our ways and means to impart sex education at personal level, because family is the best place for learning.   21st century kid watches sensuous advertisement of a condom, contraceptive pills, pregnancy test kits and effect of Viagra on different television programs. They watch different programmes and read different articles about sex. When they watch it on television or on internet, they want to ask a number of questions but could not get right person to question. Can we work like catalyst for our kids to impart “sex” education appropriate to their age? Nowadays child loves to see real fact and has less trust on fiction shared by parents and teacher. Could be avoid this situation for preparing  not a conflict personality but an integrated personality?

 

A child is child whether he was born in 90s or he was born in 2010 but life styles have been changing very fast since the evolvement of smart phone, 4G/5G internet Data Speed and other different sophisticated appliances.  Parent wants to hide What apps chat with smart lock but a smart kid knows how to unlock it. A class 3rd student watched a blue film accidentally in his parent mobile. He watched it several times and accidentally but unintentionally shared that blue film with 3-4 students of his classmates.  How can we handle this situation? Parent was feeling ashamed but for a child the game was over. That video could have probably created an interest to explore the world of sex very often. 1990s kids had less scope but 2020s kids have fathomless scope in his hand to explore the word “sex”. Life styles changes every moment. Our basic instincts and problems are same as 20-30 years back. A child’s mind grows in proportionate to his age.

How can be minimizing the stress, pain and pangs of a child?

  1. Do we think that sex education at right time will help to solve the individual’s problem?
  2. Do we think that rational and relevant sex education will help to solve the individual’s problems?
  3. Do we think that proper awareness about individual’s physical and mental status will solve our problems?
  4.  How can we help 21st century kids to become integrated personality rather than a conflict personality?
  5.  How can we aware people from different caste, creed and country to think for the welfare of 21st century globalized kids?
  6. How can we prepare parent to share right information related to sex and sexual life with his kids without hesitation?
  7. What can be the means and ways to provide proper sex education for 21st century globalized kids?
  8. Do we think that a child’s holistic development depends on proper knowledge about self?

When we talk about imparting sex education; we need to consider in a wide perspectives; we need to think; we need to think that how we are going to cater the need of 21st kids. A thousand of barriers may exist in reference to imparting sex education in globalized village. Imparting and inculcating proper sex education are demand of time. Sex education in school will help to develop integrated individual rather a conflict individual. We need to rethink and reshape our own way of thinking for the bright future of 21st generation.

I firmly believe in great educationist ‘Chan’ philosophy of learning. He quoted, “People can only know through learning and are not born with knowledge” and people should “have an insatiable desire to learn”. Desire for learning is a crucial factor. Interest to learn something is most important. Since learning is a complex phenomenon, I firmly believe that “any learning is good” if it caters the need of individual, family, society, state and nation positively. 

Rajeev Ranjan

Indian Educationist

 

 

 

 

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Ownership of Learning: Strategies for getting students to take responsibility for their learning

learning theory
Nobody is inferior and nobody is superior, one is just oneself. Unique individual possesses unique inbuilt capacity. Educator activates individual’s inbuilt capacity. He helps individual to explore his inbuilt capacity. A wise educator instigates desire for learning. Educator sole responsibility is to awaken learning sense of students and guide them to right direction in a right approach. Educator designs student’s learning techniques.

Awake Learning Desire –Develop Sense of Learning Ownership

When we awake learning desire of our students, we develop a sense of ownership in each and every learner of our classroom. Wise educator analyzes individual’s capacity intelligently and ensures his/her involvement in process of learning. When we create a positive learning circle in the classroom and students sense it positively then we lead them to a point of learning where they feel intrinsic motivation to explore depth of learning. They share their understanding with teacher, peers and friends, they feel a sense of caring from peers and teachers, they feel free to make mistakes and of course they find right platform to express their voice. Positive learning environment enables students to make appropriate learning choices which are resulted in their self –determination and intrinsic motivation to inquire, to investigate and to explore more and more.

Inculcate Democratic Values-“Yes you can” and “I believe in you”.

Educator instills democratic values when he incorporates sense of learning ownership among students. Integrating democratic values in classroom occurs when educator respects the dignity of an individual and considers individual as complete personality who can think like us. It is a sense of equality where the learner and educator stand on same platform and share knowledge with one another. It is a process to trust the individual’s dignity, capacity and capability. When educator develops a sense of learning autonomy among learners, then he says; “Yes You Can” and “I believe in you”.

Develop Ownership for Each One

When we talk developing a sense of ownership among good, average and below average academic performers of the class, we develop an autonomy supportive setting in the classroom. In fact, it has positive effects on different learners. Wise educators develop a sense of ownership among different types of learners. We instil this skill on various occasion of learning in the classroom and in the school campus.

Setting Own Learning Goals

Wise educator make them a sensible learner, who knows what to learn, how to learn and why to learn. Wise educator help learners to decide own learning goals. The day learner comes to realize that this is the ‘goal’ which I want to achieve, s/he starts working hard to achieve it since, s/he knows objective of his/her learning.

Setting Own Deadline To Complete The Tasks

Wise educator works together with all students, guide them and motivate them to complete the various task on time. Completing a task on time surely enhances the confidence and self esteem of students, because nature of task does not matter but completion of task does matter in building confidence and framing positive learning attitude among students. It develops a sense of punctuality. The day a student learns the value of completing a task on time, the day s/he leads towards a way to perfection. Ruchi is a gifted student of class 8. She excels in all learning direction. She shared her feeling in a group meeting that if she completes one task at right time, she is able to complete another task also on time, otherwise pending works creates unnecessary burden and also kills other task’s time.

Sensitize Student To Be Self Dependent

A person’s personality is total sum of the time s/he spends with his/her family, friend, school and society. Everyone becomes a teacher for us. In spite of all these stakeholders of our learning; school plays crucial role in our learning in most of the cases. A wise educator develops a sense of self dependency among learners. It is to make them free from sole dependency on teacher and textbook. An active student explores all available resources. He develops own way of learning styles, making notes and doing other learning works. He reads his own, interprets the meaning of text and seeks help from educator in the time of difficulties.

Sensitize Students To Think Independently On Any Relevant Scientific And Social Issues

Thinking is a skill. It develops over a period of time with keen eyes to observe and interpret knowledge, with the help of intensive reading and with the help of vast experiences of life. A wise educator helps students to think their own on various topics and life situation. Basically they explore the rational knowledge of students. They initiate and stimulate the inbuilt knowledge of individual in various context and references. A wise educator helps students to bloom and spread the fragrance of knowledge. He opens a door and an opportunity for his learners. Sometimes a learner thinks rationally and has concrete ideas than the educator. Educator identifies this capacity and establishes a sense to be an independent thinker on various basic and crucial points in pedagogical paradigm.

Sensitize Students To Identify Their Own Weakness And Strength

To become a knowledgeable person is one aspect of life and to become sensible to our weakness and strength help us to become integrated human beings. Educator achieves a great success when he ensures the ability to identify own weakness and strength among each and every learner. Knowing oneself is a difficult phenomenon. A wise student always ready to accept his weakness and always ready to improve his weakness, because he thinks that his weakness is a great hurdle in his learning. He challenges himself to overcome his own weakness. Tappu analyzed the last term exam result and he came to know that he could not practice well on quality content in Social Science. He got less marks in Social Science. He prepared well, used to show his written answer to his mentor and frequently asked about his weak point to his teacher. He worked on his teacher’s guidelines and developed a good command on quality answer.

Sensitize Students To Analyze Their Own Performance Data

When we evaluate our own performance in different situations, it helps us to re-evaluate our process of learning. We judge our efficiency and drawbacks. We evaluate our skills. We become able to reflect upon men, method and materials. Subham formed a peer group of learners. This group fixed the TARGET to qualify a National Level Test. Group of learners appears in different pre-preparation test series before final examination. They analyze their test score in an interval. They develop their strategies on the basis of their final score card i.e. which topics need more focus, where they have to  do more practice , what type of resource material they will use for next pre-test examination etc. Subham endorsed that critical analysis of their own performance data is like a mirror for them. It truly reflects upon their planning, preparation and execution. It helps them to re-think, reshuffle and reschedule their way of working on desired goal.

Sensitize Students To Review Steps And Strategies To Improve Weak Points

Data interpretation gives an insight for learners.  If we want to increase success ratio, we review our strategies over a period of time. Educator sensitizes their learners to review their steps and strategies to improve weak points. Everyone does not do it in day to day life. A wise learner always weighs his capacity and capability in a certain contest. They plan ahead for future so that they should not repeat previous mistakes over and over. As famous author Alexander Pope quoted once, “To err is human” (An Essay on Criticism). I firmly believe that smart people think innovatively and work according to their plan. He may commit 100 of mistakes during execution of those planning but always tries to review his mistakes and make an improved plan. Committing error is not a sin but committing mistakes again and again is a sign of conflict personality.  A wise educator nurtures an individual in such way that s/he becomes sensible enough to review his/her planning for the better learning outcome. Educator creates a circle of comfort zone so that students share their positive as well as weak points with peer, parent and teacher. A wise educator hears the unvoiced sound of a student.

Sensitize Students To Develop An Improved Plan Based On Anlyzed Data

A wise educator helps students to prepare an improved plan based on analyzed data. He discusses better options and alternate on present situation. He helps students to compare and contrast before redrafting previous plan. He shares the better ideas with students. A wise educator discusses previous experiences on certain context so that students get an insight. Ms. Rimpi a class 12 students was facing a lot of problems in developing deep conceptual understanding in a unit of physics. She consulted so many books but could not understand that particular topic. She shared her problems with Mr. Rai an experienced physics teacher of that school. Ms. Rimpi worked on the ideas given by Mr. Rai and performed quite well in compare to previous test. Integration of Mr. Rai subject expertise and vast experience and execution on the Mr. Rai suggestions by Ms.Rimpi converted into a better learning outcome.

Sensitize Students To Execute Those Steps And Strategies To Convert Efforts Into Visible Changes

Educators subject expertise as well as his/her teaching experiences provides a golden platform for students to execute different learning strategies in right directions to convert into a visible changed. We observed this with the case of Ms. Rimpi while dealing with physics problems. Educator always creates a learning environment in the classroom. He breaks the barrier of complexity of learning, motivate students to think rationally. He supports student sometimes beyond the limit to break the conventional thinking box and create a new era of learning.

Teacher activates inherent and inbuilt capacity of an individual.

Educator is architecture. He designs an integrated human being under his kind guidance and visionary leadership.

Teacher activates inherent and inbuilt capacity of an individual.  When an educator instills learning autonomy in the classroom, he helps students to develop the capacity to make choices, he helps students to understand their learning interest, he helps students how to design learning choices and monitor the positive and negative consequences of their choices, he encourages students to make choices and exercise self-initiative in learning activities, helps students to recognize and manage their emotions and finally helps students to watch how their beliefs work in different situations. In fact, it is golden opportunity for educator to share their thoughts and feeling with students.

Rajeev Ranjan

Indian Educationist

References

Dewey, J. (1916). Democracy and education. New York: Macmillan.

Fletcher, A. (2005). Meaningful student involvement: Guide to students as partners in school change. Bothell, WA: HumanLinks Foundation.

https://www.slideshare.net/rajeevelt/weak-students-remedial-teaching-tips-and-techniques-for-teachers-and-parents

https://www.slideshare.net/rajeevelt/how-to-teach-weak-students

https://www.slideshare.net/rajeevelt/creative-thinking-characteristics-tips-and-techniques-to-become-a-creative-thinker

https://www.slideshare.net/rajeevelt/critical-thinking-skill-learn-to-thinktips-and-techniques-to-develop-cts

https://www.slideshare.net/rajeevelt/how-to-deal-with-discipline-problems-in-the-classroom-tips-techniques-and-strategies-for-classroom-management

http://www.apa.org/education/k12/learners.aspx

https://www.slideshare.net/rajeevelt/reading-comprehension-passage-tips-and-techniques-to-solve

https://www.slideshare.net/rajeevelt/how-to-develop-thinking-skills

https://www.slideshare.net/rajeevelt/how-to-help-weak-students

https://www.slideshare.net/rajeevelt/life-skills-69799343

https://www.slideshare.net/rajeevelt/how-to-help-weak-students

https://www.slideshare.net/rajeevelt/life-skills-69799343

https://www.slideshare.net/rajeevelt/classroom-management-49823934

https://www.slideshare.net/rajeevelt/speaking-skill-46906285

https://www.slideshare.net/rajeevelt/anecdotal-records-41622426

https://www.slideshare.net/rajeevelt/any-time-anywhere-learning-40864490

https://www.slideshare.net/rajeevelt/blooms-taxonomy-a-revolutionary-learning-approach

 

 

 

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Tips for Developing Decision Making Skill

Decision making is a life skill. Skill helps us to grow. Decision making involves thousand of factors. Educator integrates students’ subject knowledge i.e. facts, fiction, situations, illustrations and correlates them to real life situation for developing decision making skill. Educator nurtures each individual’s capacity to take a wise decision.

Real story
Four students of class 5th approached the principal to organize a cultural programme to celebrate ‘Teachers’ Day’ in the school. They were highly motivated and wanted to do something great for their teachers. Principal inquired minutely about the programme details. He decided to develop decision making skill among them. Principal asked them to chalk out everything related to the programme i.e. programme schedule, details of programme etc. The group decided everything minutely. Principal suggested girls to take help from educator for necessary modification. He deputed two teachers as observers. Group of 4 students took help from other students of their class, assigned duty and instructed them wisely. They organized programme exceptionally well.
It was a risk to give opportunity to a group of junior girls (5th class) to organize a cultural programme for almost 1000 students and more than 70 staffs; however he identified the calibre of students and took the risk for giving a golden opportunity for them. The principal identified, analyzed, evaluated their calibre, and trusted them, which resulted in a good cultural programme. Educator helps students. How we can do that?
1. Evaluate the calibre of students
2. Trust them, “yes they can”
3. Illustrate best possible alternatives
4. Sensitize them and lead them to the best possible point
5. Guide them to take decision carefully and deliberately
6. Give them space and time to think, to plan and to execute
Educator should sensitize students about the process of decision making. We can help them to work on the process. We can make them alert about the essential characteristics and ways of decision making. Ultimately an individual has to make decision while considering, time, situation, problems, facts, other related circumstances and consequence; moreover educator empowers individual to make an independent decision.
(Excerpts from How to Develop Decision Making Skill)
Rajeev Ranjan

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Rote Learning Importance and Benefits

Rote Learning-Essential Learning Technique

“Learning by Repetition”

A Blessing for Learners

Learning is a complex phenomenon. Learning a new concept, ideas, fact, fiction heavily depends on individual nature. Individual learns well when s/he integrates deep understanding with intensive practice. Individual learning nature determines level of understanding new things in a life circle. Unique individual possesses unique styles of learning. Individual learns something at own comfort level and styles.

Any learning is good

Human being develops own way of learning new things. Since, learning is a complex phenomenon; therefore I firmly believe that “any learning is good”; if it caters the need of individual, family, society, state and nation positively. Learning styles can be different from one person to another person. In fact person’s learning does matter in life. It purely depends on individual’s requirement and individual’s nature. Learning styles can be different as well as learning objective can also be different. Rote learning is essential learning style right from the evolvement of human society. Rote learning is fundamental style of learning. Rote learning is crucial learning style since our childhood. As we grow, we develop our own understanding of worldly things. We learn by adopting different learning method i.e. rote learning, meaningful learning and conceptual learning at different stages of life.  We speak our first word i.e.  Maa, Paa, Papa, Mom, grandpa etc; we do so much internal repetition and drilling before speaking these words. Our verbal learning depends on rote memorization at early stages in our life. It certainly continues at certain age and at certain extent for whole life. Gradually we move from rote memorization to meaning learning. In fact rote learning is instilled in our nature right from the beginning of our life.

Rote learning is an essential nature of our learning

Rote learning is an essential nature of our learning. Rote learning is an integration of repetition, drilling, memorization and proper practice in a certain interval. It is an effective means of motivation of getting basic knowledge in early stages of learning. It boosts up our confidence and also motivates us for learning new things. At early stages of learning, child learns so many new things i.e. rhymes, days, months, basic spellings, table, counting, basic facts, different useful sentences in day to day life. Parent and teacher motivate child to do practice several times. It becomes an active habit of learning. Gradually we form a habit of learning new things through repetition, drilling and memorizing.

Rote learning is path to reach the destination of understanding, but not the destination. We know that memorization is a very important tool of learning. We can say that rote learning is a combination of memorizing and understanding. In other words rote learning is way of developing a level of understanding through memorizing.

Rote learning involves repetition

Rote learning involves repetition of learning same thing over a period of time. Gradually people reaches at the level of accuracy through repetition. Rote learning is established a sense of solid foundation for accurate knowledge on which the development of other learning depends on it, if not completely then surely partially. It is beneficial for knowledge acquisition. Rote learning is a process of learning from accuracy to fluency since it involves repetition, practicing and time to time over viewing of learning.

Rote learning in examination oriented educational system

Rote learning is one of the best learning style in an examination oriented educational system. The examination paper appears to be designed to test fixed and accurate knowledge of students shared by educator on different time. Educator expects learner to be precise and accurate while writing answer. Exactness comes with a lot of repetition and memorization of same topics over a period of time. Rote learning style suits well for academically weak and academically average performer and sometimes gifted learner too. Teacher expects same answer from students as taught by him in previous day of teaching. In these circumstances, rote learning style becomes blessing for average students and curse for gifted students. Now and then rote learning becomes very helpful for gifted students at eleventh hour of final examination .i.e. Sadhana is a very good student of the class but even after several attempt to clear concept in one of the complex topic of inorganic chemistry, she could not do it. She knows the importance of this topic. Since this is very crucial topic of a particular unit she could not leave this question due to her lack of understanding. So she decided to memorize it. She tried to learn and wrote the answer well in the examination.

Essential learning skill for academically weak learners

Generally it is observed that academically low performer cross the barrier by using technique of rote learning in examination oriented educational system. They focus on rote learning in each subject. Since, they could not develop proper understanding of prescribed syllabus during academic session. They focus on memorizing important topics several times and try to command so that at least they will attempt question paper very well. No doubt at all, evaluator does not know the calibre of students while checking answer sheets. They evaluate what is written on the answer sheets. Content of answer sheet is complete representation of calibre, capacity and understanding of a particular student. Evaluator does not see the face value and understanding level on answer sheet. Evaluators evaluate the final answer of student.

Academically weak students gain confidence through rote learning technique. They try to memorise different important topics. Usually it goes from simple to complex. Rote learning technique becomes blessing for academically weak students and helps students to cover a respectable portion of prescribed syllabus partially in almost all subjects. They learn definition, (day and dates, mathematical formulas, historical points, scientific fact, general rules and regulations, differences, certain points) key points, several factual questions, and one word/one sentence question answer, short type question answer properly. Academically weak students score respectable marks and cross the barrier of class, grade and next level of promotion. Rote learning is a means to cross the barrier.

I think learning a certain topic through rote learning lead student to next level of understanding in certain situations. It is purely depend on unique quality of a unique individual. Rote learning is an important tool of learning to succeed in the examination driven educational system. Pioneer of Chinese philosopher Biggs (1999:2) says that “Repetition is the route to understanding”. We may agree or disagree on Biggs perception; however rote learning is surely helpful for many of students.

“Practice leads to perfection.”

“Practice leads to perfection.”  This could be probably tag line for rote learning. Famous educationist Moore stated that “Rote learning is a method involving repetition and memorisation”.  Student drills and repeatedly reads and learns same topics several times to memorise by heart. Students try to memorise different topics by verbal and written repetition. They practice it so many times. They focus on several points of prescribed syllabus on different time. They focus on-

  • Key definition related to different topics
  • Key words related to different topics
  • Difficult words’ spelling
  • Important points of different topics
  • Days and dated of different topics
  • Important factors related to different topics
  • Mathematical formulas/Different rules

 

 

  • Rules and regulation
  • Scientific facts and figures
  • Short answer –Multiple choice/objective
  • Short answer
  • Simple items on map/direction symbols
  • Compare and contrast between two

Rote learning is beneficial when we focus on factual (facts) questions. Students make chart, diagram, notes and list of key points. They practice all learning items continuously till they get confidence to reproduce on the paper or reproduce verbally.

  Everyone cannot develop understanding for everything

 Rote learning is a ladder for starting from lowest point of learning to highest point of understanding. Proper learning happens with proper practice when we do it in proper manner. Everyone cannot learn everything. I firmly accept that rote learning is an art. It is completely a skill. It is basically a challenge for a learner to memorise something and reproduce in same language. Rote learning provides opportunity for mediocre learner to learn something accurately and to do something good in life. Sometimes and somewhere it helps to fill the gap between a smart performer and an average performer. It is observed in pedagogical perspective that so many average learner turned into an intellectual learner in his life time. Rote learning encourages diligence and hard work in learning. It gives a sense of pleasure when I read Francis Bacon quote, “Knowledge is power”. I find that the more I read, the more I know and the more time I spend on learning my prescribed syllabus, the deeper understanding I develop. Of course, I get better score in the examination and get appreciation from family, friend and society. Nilabh stated in an award ceremony that everyone marked me as a mediocre student, but I proved myself worth enough with my hard work. I focused on essential key points in almost all chapters in all subject. I practiced so much by reading, writing and repeating this exercise over a period of time. It is not an easy job at all. It demands a lot of patience, persistence and consistence to memorise something and reproducing in same language.   Learning objective makes a thin layer difference. I firmly believe that purpose of learning decides nature of learning styles. If rote learning fulfils our need then I enjoy doing it several times.

Rote learning involves thinking process

Rote learning is a process of thinking. When a student learns something by repeating it several times, certainly thought process is on awaken mode. Human beings perform a work when he involves in it. Human involvement is a sign of integration of several thoughts. Mind actively involves in memorising. Mental involvement is proportionate to thought process of human. The more we involve, the more we think to achieve it, to enquire about it and to explore about it.

I firmly believe in great educationist ‘Chan’ philosophy of learning. He quoted, “People can only know through learning and are not born with knowledge” …and people should “have an insatiable desire to learn”. Desire for learning is a crucial factor in learning. Interest to learn something is most important than to select one between two learning styles, whether rote learning is valuable or meaningful learning has great value. . Since, learning is a complex phenomenon; therefore I firmly believe that “any learning is good”; if it caters the need of individual, family, society, state and nation positively.

Rajeev Ranjan

 

Reference web links:-

https://www.slideshare.net/rajeevelt/weak-students-remedial-teaching-tips-and-techniques-for-teachers-and-parents

https://www.slideshare.net/rajeevelt/how-to-teach-weak-students

https://www.slideshare.net/rajeevelt/creative-thinking-characteristics-tips-and-techniques-to-become-a-creative-thinker

https://www.slideshare.net/rajeevelt/critical-thinking-skill-learn-to-thinktips-and-techniques-to-develop-cts

https://www.slideshare.net/rajeevelt/how-to-prepare-for-exam-study-tips-techniques-guide-for-students

http://www.asian-efl-journal.com/xiuping_11-05_thesis.pdf

An analysis of Chinese EFL learners’ beliefs about the role of rote learning in vocabulary learning strategies   http://www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/learningenglish/radio/specials/1535_questionanswer/page62.shtml

http://www.oxfordreference.com/view/10.1093/acref/9780199212064.001.0001/acref-9780199212064-e-861

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/oct/08/why-do-japanese-children-lead-world-numeracy-literacy

Larsen-Freeman, D. & Long, M. H. (1991). An Introduction to Second Language  Acquisition Research. London & NewYork: Longman.

 

 

 

 

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Each one Teach one

Nobody is inferior and nobody is superior, one is just oneself. Educator identifies inherent capacity of students. He nurtures the inherent talent to become more efficient and more skilled; to do something more innovative, more expressive, more novel for the welfare of the universe. Educator nurtures everyone in the class. He tries to include something more to enhance the learning aptitude and attitude of the students.

Teaching is a great art. The artist portraits beautiful portrait, that amazes world for a long time. Artist portraits beautiful nature and develops an eternal beauty forever and even also brings life in a stone. Educationist is the artist who develops each individual as an integrated human being. Educator nurtures the nature of each individual.

Indian Educationist

Rajeev Ranjan