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Leadership -10 Best Quotes on Qualities and Characteristics of a Leader

Leadership -“You Too”

What are qualities of a good leader?   What are the characteristics of a good leader? What is leadership ?

We are unique individuals. We possess unique leadership quality to lead oneself, family and professional life, however conscience, clear vision, self confidence, strong determination  and  strong will power to take a wise decision at right time and at right place are core essential qualities of a leader. Rajeev Ranjan

Rajeev Ranjan

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Believe in Yourself—–“Act Now”——” You can”

“Act Now”

” You can”—–Believe in Yourself

“Believe in yourself! Have faith in your abilities!

“If you can dream it, you can do it.”—Walt Disney

How to increase our confidence to face challenges? 

Rajeev Ranjan

School Teacher

Teaching is an art

Top 10 Education Quotes for Students Teachers Parents and Educationist

Life Changing Positive Thoughts of World Great Personality 

Life Changing Positive Thoughts -Positive Vibrations of Life

10 Life Changing Inspirational and Motivational Thoughts/ Do not wait- Start

 

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10 Life Changing Inspirational and Motivational Thoughts/ Do not wait- Start

Life Changing Inspirational and Motivational Thoughts/Quotes 

Do not wait; the time will never be ‘just right.’ Start where you stand, and work with whatever tools you may have at your command, and better tools will be found as you go along.”—George Herbert

Rajeev Ranjan

Life Changing Positive Thoughts -Positive Vibrations of Life

Life Changing Positive Thoughts of World Great Personality 

Top 10 Education Quotes for Students Teachers Parents and Educationist

School Teacher

Top 10 Education Quotes for Students Teachers Parents and Educationist

Teaching is an art

 

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How to overcome fear simple and effective steps to change our life

How to overcome fear simple and effective ideas to change our life

In life-

Afraid people ask!

How it will happen?

Valiant people ask!

How it will not happen?

That brings a big difference

Fear gives a clear indication and invitation for you, win me otherwise I will  ensure your defeat……Would you like to be defeated by fear or ——–Will you defeat  fear with your great valor?

Valiant and scared men are frightened in same intensity. Frightened man is trapped with his fear and valiant man takes a courageous step forward to win over the fearful situation. Read more—————————————————

Paridhi – a baby girl – 18  months old –enjoying bathing in the Ganga River –fearless- wanted to bath all alone

 

 

 

 

Rajeev Ranjan

Indian Educationist

 

Life Changing Positive Thoughts -Positive Vibrations of Life

 

 

 

Life Changing Positive Thoughts of World Great Personality 

 

Top 10 Education Quotes for Students Teachers Parents and Educationist

 

Teaching is an art

School Teacher

Top 10 Education Quotes for Students Teachers Parents and Educationist

 

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Top 10 Education Quotes for Students Teachers Parents and Educationist

Top 10 Education Quotes for Students Teachers Parents and Educationist

Top 10 Education Quotes for Students Teachers Parents and Educationist

Life Changing Positive Thoughts of World Great Personality 

Life Changing Positive Thoughts -Positive Vibrations of Life

Teacher -Inspirational and motivational quotes

School Teacher

 

 

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Life Changing Positive Thoughts -Positive Vibrations of Life

Life Changing Positive Thoughts ” Grow Together Glow Together”

Positive Vibrations of Life

Life Changing Positive Thoughts

Rajeev Ranjan

Life Changing Positive Thoughts of World Great Personality 

Code of Conduct – Employees of CBSE Affiliated Schools- Affiliation Bye Laws

Weak Students Teacher Makes a Difference-Effective Teaching Techniques

Project Based Learning-Importance and Benefits in Pedagogical Perspectives

Student Misbehaviour- Being Humane without being Judgmental

 

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Project Based Learning-Importance and Benefits in Pedagogical Perspectives

Project Based Learning; a Real Learning Experience

Project Based Learning; a Real Learning Experience” ” is an integrated learning approach. A project is meaningful if it fulfills two criteria. First, students must perceive it as personally meaningful, as a task that matters and that they want to do well. Second, a meaningful project fulfills an educational purpose. Well-designed and well-implemented PBL—————————–

Project Based Learning; a Real Learning Experience- Introduction

 A systemic teaching method that engages students in learning essential knowledge and skills through an extended, student-influenced inquiry process structured around complex, authentic questions and carefully designed tasks and products.   In other words, a task or problem engaged in usually by a group of students to supplement and apply classroom studies. It is considered as an alternative to paper-based, rote memorization, teacher-led classrooms.

Proponents of project-based learning cite numerous benefits to the implementation of these strategies in the classroom including a greater depth of understanding of concepts, broader knowledge base, improved communication and interpersonal/social skills, enhanced leadership skills, increased creativity, and improved writing skills.

“When teachers and their students are “connected” through project based learning, the “world” becomes an indispensable curriculum resource.”-(NCF 2005)  Teachers are no longer their students’ primary sources of information. Instead, they are the designers of learning who created the conditions for the students to conduct their own inquiries, and advisers to whom learners can come as they create their product. It is in fact, also known as inquiry-based learning /inquiry-based learning, and problem-based learning.  Initially, John Dewey promoted the idea of “learning by doing in ‘My Pedagogical Creed’. It was popular at the beginning of the 20th century and again in the current century. Project-based learning has been associated with the “situated learning” perspective of James G. Greeno (2006) and on the constructivist theories of Jean Piaget.

Today, teachers around the world are designing projects for their students because they ignite a shared passion for learning in both students and staff; they foster a wide range of skills (such as time management, collaboration, and problem solving) that students will need at school, college, university, and in the workplace; and they can be tailored to suit students with a wide range of abilities and learning needs. Fortunately, designing projects help students to master the content which they are required to learn. The best way to do this is by using ‘backwards planning’. (The Teacher’s Guide to Project-based Learning). PBL provides a new life experience for collaborative learning i.e. how to share, care and come out from real situation of conflict (working in group) where a certain number of people is working to achieve a single goal.

 

 Objective of Project Based Learning mentioned in (Project-Based Learning ,  A  Resource for Instructors and Program Coordinators, National Academy Foundation and Pearson Foundation). Project based classroom is dynamic and interactive. Teacher is an active learner and facilitator. It starts with a problem, facts and skills in a relevant context.

 Well-designed projects ask students to:

  • Tackle real problems and issues that have importance to people beyond the classroom. Projects emanate from issues of real importance to students and adults in the community and answer the age-old student question “Why do we need to know this?”
  • Actively engage in their learning and make important choices during the project.

Projects make room for student choice and creativity while still demanding student mastery of essential content, enabling students and teachers to interact as co-learners in the experience, rather than in the traditional student-teacher relationship.

  • Demonstrate in tangible ways that they have learned key concepts and skills.

Projects provide opportunities for students to produce observable evidence that they have mastered rigorous curricular standards as they apply their learning and solve the problem at hand.  PBL empowers students with life skills i.e.  critical thinking, problem solving, decision making, and various forms of learning skills. Projects and exhibitions also provide extensive evidence of process work and self-directed learning. 

Key Points of Project Based Learning:-

  1. A project is meaningful if it fulfils two criteria. First, students must perceive it as personally meaningful, as a task that matters and that they want to do well. Second, a meaningful project fulfils an educational purpose. Well-designed and well-implemented Project Based Learning (PBL) is meaningful in both ways.
  2. In terms of making a project feel meaningful to students, the more voice and choice, the better.
  3. Teachers should design projects with the extent of student choice that fits their own style and students. On the “the more the better” end of the scale, students can decide following points:
  4. What product they will create?
  5. What resources they will use?
  6. How they will structure their time?
  7. “PBL integrates knowing and doing. Students learn knowledge and elements of the core curriculum, but also apply what they know to solve authentic problems and produce results that matter.” Markham (2011)
  8. ‘PBL refers to students designing, planning, and carrying out an extended project that produces a publicly-exhibited output such as a product, publication, or presentation.
  9. PBL emphasizes learning activities that are long-term, interdisciplinary and student-centered.
  10. PBL differs from traditional inquiry by its emphasis on students’ collaborative or individual artefact construction to represent what is being learned.
  11. PBL organizes around an open-ended driving question or challenge.
  12. PBL project plan should include the essential curriculum content for the project.
  13. PBL promotes critical thinking, problem solving, collaboration, and various forms of communication, often known as “21st Century Skills.
  14. PBL promotes students to use technology in meaningful ways to help them investigate, collaborate, analyze, synthesizes and presents their learning.
  15. PBL is an effective strategy for teaching complex skills such as planning, communicating, problem solving, and decision making. ( Dr. John W. Thomas, 2000)
  16. PBL can help increase student attendance, attitude, and self-reliance. For teachers, PBL can help increase professionalism and collaboration. ( Dr. John W. Thomas, 2000)
  17. Role of student is to ask questions, build knowledge, and determine a real-world solution to the issue/question presented. PBL allows them to think rationally on how to solve problems. PBL forces students to take ownership of their success.
  18. Collecting information
  19. Developing question
  • Exploring material and discussing outcome with peers
  1. Reflecting on the result
  2. Role of teacher Project Based Learning is that of a facilitator. The instructor regulates students and ensures that students should remain focused and have a deep understanding of the concepts being investigated. The students are held accountable to these goals through ongoing feedback and assessments. We always face challenges while implementing a concept and learning new things. PBL is students’ friendly learning approach under kind guidance of a teacher to involve students in working on tasks. However, there is several questions arise for implementing PBL in real life teaching learning situation. We can also see the teachers’ role in following areas.
  3. Offer guidance on subject/theme/topic
  4. Formation of different types of learner and their performance level
  • Holding meeting for further course of action
  1. Facilitating learners in different layers of project

Teachers can also meditate on following points:-

  1. Will this project engage my students?

The Learning Futures schools use a checklist to gauge the likely engagement of students in any given project idea. We call it ‘the Four Ps of Deep Engagement’. Before going too far with an idea for a project ask yourself whether the project is:

  • Placed – is it located in a place that is important to students (e.g. their home, community, town, city or virtual environment)?
  • Purposeful – will it result in a product, service or body of knowledge that others will make use of? Will the process seem authentic to students?
  • Pervasive – will students be sufficiently engaged in the project’s activities that they’ll want to voluntarily take the learning outside school and school hours? Is it likely to broaden students’ horizons?
  • Passion-led – Does the project tap into students’ passions?
  1. Will this project engage me?

It’s important that facilitator is personally curious and involve about the project’s outcome, that s/he will learn new things from it.

  1. Will my students learn something meaningful from this project?

It’s a good idea to make a list of the things you expect your students to have learned: this should include subject content, skills, as well as attributes to be developed (e.g. confidence, resilience, and resourcefulness).( The Learning Futures school)   

During the project planning phase, teachers must make sure that the project will result in student-generated evidence of learning that aligns closely with intended skill and content standards. (National Academy Foundation and Pearson Foundation)

 Integration of Inter- Disciplinary Subjects

PBL promotes integrated learning approach in this fast growing world where technological integration requires at every step of learning. It is combined learning approach where we can integrate different subjects into one project work i.e. a language teacher asks students to prepare a project on ‘bird migration’. He enquirers other subject teacher that, is there a lesson related to nature/environment or other interdisciplinary theme or not in respective subjects. He finds several correlated lessons in different subjects. He finds that students can get good ideas from subject English (unit –Environment), Science (Diversity in Living Organism), Social Science (Natural Vegetation and Wild Life) and Mathematics (Statics). (PBL, CBSE) Teacher guides his students to collect the material/content from different subjects, students collect ideas which help student to work on the given project. This activity increases not only interest of students to read other subjects but also to give equal importance to all subjects.   PBL approach provides opportunity for the teacher to become a facilitator in real sense. He becomes the torch bearer in developing tools and techniques on how to examine and analyze issue, the information they need to collect, planning, organizing the framework of the project. The projected action will be initiated by the students.

 Difference between “Activity” and “Project”

There is much confusion among teacher about the difference between ‘activity’ and ‘project’ in regular teaching learning process. Project based learning guide developed by National Academy Foundation and Pearson Foundation clearly mentioned the difference i.e.

ACTIVITY PROJECT
Students in a history class study Westward Expansion for three weeks, culminating with a “Frontier Feast” where students dress in period costumes and eat typical western fare from the era.

 

Students in a history class spend three weeks focused on the essential question “How did Westward Expansion impact our community?” Students learn about the period, research local connections, and design a museum exhibit featuring historical artifacts, primary source documents, and expert commentary from local historians. The exhibit is mounted in the community center lobby, and students serve as docents to the general public.

 

 Advantages of Project Based Learning:

  1. Rivet & Krajcki, 2004 and William & Linn, 2003 state that “research has demonstrated that students in project-based learning classrooms get higher scores than students in traditional classroom.”
  2. PBL develops responsibility, or ownership among students for their learning, their self-esteem soars. It also helps to create better work habits and attitudes toward learning.
  3. Project-Based Learning students also learn skills that are essential in higher education.
  4. PBL allows pupils to expand their minds and think beyond what they normally would.
  5. Project-Based Learning students learn skills, in fact, more than just finding answers.

 Disadvantages of Project Based Learning:-

Unplanned lessons can result in the wasting of precious class time. If the project does not remain on task and content driven the student will not be successful in learning the material.

 Assessment in Project Based Learning:-

 Assessment isn’t just about the final product.  In fact, final assessment will focus on the products that students have produced, and how they went about producing them (the process). Despite this, it is worth enough to remember that not everybody needs to produce the same product in order to demonstrate their learning. Questions that final assessment should address are followings:-

  1. Does the product meet or exceed the criteria we set at the start at the project?
  2. Has the student developed the skills required for the execution of this project?
  3. Has the student learned the curriculum content required for this project?

Ron Berger rightly states that real assessment take place when a teacher is minute observer and observes his students holistically. Teachers often mistakenly presume that a project’s final product is the only thing they should assess, which leads them to assume that they should be able to tell whether the kids learned what they needed to learn by looking at the final product.

Actually, assessing what kids know is ongoing throughout a project. The product is the motivation for learning the material, but it won’t demonstrate that they learned it all. For example, in the physics standards project, each kid only demonstrated one physics concept, so how do you know that they learned the rest of the material?

The answer to this question is that the book isn’t the assessment. You can assess what they’ve learned before the book comes out, and afterwards. In Physics Standards they gave all the students a physics test with all the concepts in it. You need to do assessment throughout the project so that when they’re doing great artistic stuff, you know that they know what they need to know. You can’t leave it all to the end.

(Ron Berger, Chief Programme Officer, Expeditionary Learning)

Conclusion:

Blumenfeld et al. says that, “Project-based learning is a comprehensive perspective focused on teaching by engaging students in investigation. Within this framework, students pursue solutions to nontrivial problems by asking and refining questions, debating ideas, making predictions, designing plans and/or experiments, collecting and analyzing data, drawing conclusions, communicating their ideas and findings to others, asking new questions, and creating artefacts. Projects vary greatly in the depth of the questions explored, the clarity of the learning goals, the content and structure of the activity, and guidance from the teacher.

 The core idea of project-based learning is that real-world problems capture students’ interest and provoke serious thinking as the students acquire and apply new knowledge in a problem-solving context. The teacher plays the role of facilitator, working with students to frame worthwhile questions, structuring meaningful tasks, coaching both knowledge development and social skills, and carefully assessing what students have learned from the experience.

 Researched and Prepared by

Rajeev Ranjan

Principal

B.Ed(English)

Post Graduate Diploma in Teaching English (PGDTE)

English and Foreign Languages University, Hyderabad

&

BA & MA (English)

Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi

www.rajeevranjan.net

Email .Id: rajeevbhuvns@gmail.com

 References and resources for further reading:-

Article, 7 Essentials for Project-Based Learning(John Larmer , John R. Mergerndoller, In Educational Leadership, Buck Institute of Education)

The Buck Institute for Education (http://www.bie.org/)

Using Project-Based Learning to Increase Student Engagement and Understanding March 2012(TEXAS INSTRUMENT)

Project-Based Learning,  A  Resource for Instructors and Program Coordinators(National Academy Foundation and Pearson Foundation)

PBL is consistent with best practices in instructional design. To learn more, visit ASCD’s Understanding by Design Exchange. (http://www.ubdexchange.org/default.html)

PBL as an instructional strategy to create rigorous and relevant learning experiences by Dr. John W. Thomas’s (http://www.bobpearlman.org/BestPractices/PBL_Research.pdf)

Stanford University’s School Redesign Network includes links to many resources that help define and understand PBL. (http://www.schoolredesign.net/srn/server.php?idx=850).

The Small Schools Project boasts an amazing collection of resources to assist those educators creating small learning communities and small schools where PBL can thrive. (http://smallschoolsproject.org/)

The High Tech High network features schools designed to support PBL in the classroom.

(http://www.hightechhigh.org/)

Project Examples

PBL at NAF, Digital Storytelling for Academy Students and Instructors

(http://pearsonfoundation.org/NAF) The NAF/Pearson Foundation Digital Storytelling Project is modelled on exemplary PBL principles.

What Kids Can Do (http://www.whatkidscando.org/index.asp) This national nonprofit organization focused on student voice has links to several outstanding projects in their “projects and products” section (under “Student Work & Voice”).

STEPs (link to http://itd.usd259.org/steps/pbl.htm) The Standards for Teachers through Educational Projects site includes video downloads of exemplary projects.

Edutopia – The George Lucas Educational Foundation (http://www.edutopia.org/) The George Lucas Educational Foundation’s includes video clips highlighting exemplary projects.

Great Student Work (http://www.bobpearlman.org/BestPractices/StudentWork.htm)  Educational reform expert Bob Pearlman offers links to exceptional project examples and assessments from around the globe.

Best Wishes

 

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Comprehensive Sex Education in School-“Why & How”

Comprehensive Sex Education in School

Education helps to develop a better understanding for the self. Educated person perceives self and society.  Education develops the ability to think independently, rationally, critically and creatively. Education imparts conscience. Conscience helps us to live a meaningful life. In fact we know a conscious person develops a better understanding for self and surrounding.

Comprehensive sexuality education (CSE) is need of 21st century globalized children for living a healthy life. It is time to empower children and young age people without making differences among caste, creed and culture. Comprehensive sexuality education (CSE) is one of the unrecorded fundamental rights of children. We have rights to accept the thing as it exists.

Great philosopher and international spiritual ‘guru’ Rajnish quoted “truth is truth, and nobody should debar from it”. What is wrong with comprehensive sexuality education (CSE)? Tell it the way it is. What can we hide from our children? Children are very perceptive. Even if we do not tell them, they will discover it on their own. They are smart, intelligent and equipped with Smart phone.

World Wide Web dissolves all the layers and differences between caste and creed, educated and uneducated, literate and illiterate elite class and down trodden, poor and rich. World Wide Web has brought one of the greatest revolution. We are witness of this revolution.

Can we stop our child inquiring about sexuality? We cannot stop the natural flow of a river? Water always finds out its way to move ahead. It goes towards down and down. If we cannot stop natural journey of water, so what should be we do? A wise person channelizes the strength of water and gives it right direction. Sexuality possesses the nature of water. Comprehensive sexuality education channelizes intrinsic impulses of children in right direction.

Parent and teacher face a big question when it comes for educating their child about comprehensive sex education. We do not find a big difference between developed countries and developing countries. Only on difference I could find out that is legalizing age for giving consent for sex and marriage, other than this we work as moral police. Asian countries’ legal age of consent for sexual activity varies from age 12 to 21. (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ages_of_consent_in_Asia).

Countries Age of consent for sexual Activity
13 years , 15 years South Korea, North Korea
14 years Austria, Germany, Hungary, Italy and Prorogues
15 years Greece, Poland, Sweden
16 years Belgium, Netherlands, Spain and Russia
16 years United Kingdom
18 years India
14 years China

If globalized citizen consider that 13 years old boys and girls can give consent for intercourse then we need to think to provide comprehensive sex education to our kids’ right from tender age to save them from several unwanted diseases. Growth of a child from ignorant child to a smart child is changed due to prosperity in our life, better living standard and different food habits. Scientific research study reveals that maturity of a girl child can happens at the age of 7 years. (https://www.aap.org).  It is necessary to develop a comprehensive curriculum to develop appropriate knowledge and skills to love a healthy sexual life.

UNESCO recognized comprehensive sexuality education as an age-appropriate, culturally relevant approach to teaching about sexuality and relationships by providing scientifically accurate, realistic, nonjudgmental information* (UNESCO, 2009. International Technical Guidance on Sexuality Education).

What are common advantages of comprehensive sexuality education?

  1. Develop physically and mentally a healthy citizen
  2. Keep away from sexual transmitted disease/infections i.e. HIV,
  3. Reduce teenage unwanted pregnancy
  4. Reduce domestic violence

Education is the greatest remedies for coming out from several catastrophes in our life. Comprehensive sexuality education will empower children and young age people to take necessary precautions for living a healthy life. Precaution is better than cure.

Sexual desire and sexual intimacy are intrinsic and impulsive in its nature. We can hide and we can forcefully stop it but we cannot efface it. Rational education imparts skills, values and knowledge among us. Sexuality education addresses most sensitive aspects of human life. Comprehensive sexuality education programme should sensitize the young age people for developing positive values towards gender differences and awareness for own physical and mental development at this stage.

Age appropriate comprehensive sexuality education

Educated world citizen considers importance of age appropriate comprehensive sexuality education. What should be taught at particular age group children? How much should be taught at particular age group children? We are  living in a data world. Children smartly handle smart phone at the age of 5. Children become smart at the age of 8 and develop sensitive nature towards opposite sex. Comprehensive sexuality education curriculum should cater the need of these smart children.

Scientifically accurate comprehensive sexuality education

Generally children inquire different information with the materials available on Web World Wide (WWW) which may or may not be written by expert people. Web World Wide (WWW) has fathomless resources written on sexuality education. Expert people know the technical and scientifically importance of different physical development and different physical and mental need of human beings. To be Ignorant is better than incomplete knowledge. When we don’t know about something, we show hesitation to do experiments in our life due to various reasons but when we know something incompletely, incompleteness  gives us  a sense of achievement and confidence which leads us to experiment with the ideas that possibly leads to bad health i.e. (a) how to keep ourselves neat and clean during periods, (a1) myth and facts about periods (b) how to use contraceptive pill or other available medication to avoid pregnancy,(c) how to use condom to avoid unwanted pregnancy and other transmittable diseases i.e. HIV , (d) when to consult doctor for discussing different bodily changing symptoms, (e) how to keep hygiene during oral sex, (f) why to avoid doing sexual activities at age between (8-15-16-) (g) with whom should we discuss sex related problems at first, (h) What are dos and do not before indulging in sexuality, (i) how to share it with other, (j) other myth and facts about sexuality. Scientifically based education will help our children and young age people to live a healthy life.

Cultural appropriate comprehensive sexuality education

Human beings are socially connected to each other. We accept and respect the existence of other family members and society members. We are unique but we are culturally dependent on each other which help us to live in a peace and harmony. Sexuality is big taboo word for the society. It is universal truth but we are hiding so many things to other person due to cultural connection. Game of hide and seek leads to health hazards. Parents and teachers avoid healthy discussion on sexuality. We face a great question before starting a healthy discussion on sexuality with our children and young age people,(a) how to start it (b) who will start it. We face same dilemmatic situation as “who will bell the cat” due to cultural perspectives.

Cultural limitation and restriction are big hurdles for imparting comprehensive sexuality programme at world level. If comprehensive sexuality education programme is developed and customized to address different cultural limitation, then only we will be successful in imparting it for common people. Comprehensive sexuality education programme has a great vision to sensitize young generation, “how to keep ourselves healthy”. Comprehensive sexuality education programme sensitizes world citizen to be protective, active and alert for own healthy life.  

Comprehensive sexuality education on realistic ground

Sexuality is a taboo word for each one of us. We know its reality but we avoid decorating in words. We cannot neglect the reality to keep our young age general healthy. Sexuality related education programme will help our child to take a wise step. If we fail to educate them, then it will be more hazards for them. They inquire and investigate it through several unreliable sources i.e. friends, World Wide Web (www) and other cheap resources. Comprehensive sexuality education helps children to grow wisely and keep themselves healthy.

Comprehensive sexuality education with nonjudgmental information

Healthy and integrated children can think and perform better. How to impart comprehensive sex education is the biggest challenge for different policy and educational stakeholders? What are the specific words chosen for imparting sex education? Do words create negative impact on child?  Wise educator and parent use appropriate words to impart sexuality education. Wise educator use simple and concrete words to describe essential facts and concepts. Educator avoids a situation where child confuses himself with complex and confusing words. Essential truth of life should be shared in nonjudgmental form and our words and phrases consist of deep meaning based on facts.

Wise parent and educator express truth of life in as simple as sexuality “is”.

 

Rajeev Ranjan

Indian Educationist

Sex Education for Children: Need to implement effective sexuality education programmes

Sex Education: Challenge for 21st Century Globalized World-Its Importance and Benefits

http://www.rajeevelt.com/respect-values-of-life-student-character-building-indian-educationist/rajeev-ranjan/

 

 

 

 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Comprehensive_sex_education