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English Speaking Skill -Promoting English Speaking Skill in Non-Native Speakers

English Speaking Skill -Success Story of Sonia- Hindi Speaker to Fluent English Speaker

Sonia and Ranjan come from a remote village Mor. Sonia’s father is a farmer and Ranjan’s father is a shopkeeper, however their father feels very happy when they listen that their children are talking in English about school at home. Sonia is so simple girl. She wants to share thoughts and giving speech in the assembly. She shares her desire to her math teacher. Her math teacher Niranjan suggests that if you practice to speak in English regularly then you will become the smartest girl of the school. Sonia got nice ideas that firstly she will practice to speak in ENGLISH at the school, secondly she will not hesitate to talk in ENGLISH and thirdly she will not be afraid of others what they think if she speaks wrong sentences or if she picks up wrong words. These ideas gave her confidence. Sonia started speaking in ENGLISH all the time. She started talking in English with friends and teachers even she used to speak in ENGLISH while returning to home by the school bus. Slowly –slowly Sonia becomes master in communication. She conducts assembly, shares thoughts and gives speech on various occasions. Everyone of her class was surprised to see that nowadays Sonia became so much confident. She came first in all the subjects in FA3 examination. Earlier Ranjan used to speak in ENGLISH but nowadays he becomes careless and lazy. Sonia got the best speaker award on FA 3 Award Day Function. She shared the story of her success that in the beginning she faced so many problems i.e. no one speaks English at her home, her friends made fun on her English speaking, sometimes teacher scolded her but she practices, practices and practices to speak in ENGLISH. Be like Sonia—————“Let us communicate in English all the time”””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””

Rajeev Ranjan

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Duties and Responsibilities of a School Teacher

Duties and Responsibilities of a School Teacher

The art of teaching is the art of assisting discovery…….Mark Van Doren

Position Function Reporting Officer
Teacher Teaching Principal

The teachers’ entire personality is a reflection on the minds of the students. If the teacher is honest, leads a balanced and disciplined life, the children adopt these virtues as an ideal conduct unconsciously.

Duties of Teacher in—————–

  1. Detailing every student
  1. Build one to one relationship with students
  2. Know everything about your students’ i.e. family background, learning habits, merits and demerits, special qualities(physical skills, language skills, emotional skills, social skills, cognitive skills and spiritual skills )
  3. Make students aware of realities of life
  4. Inspire students to face problems with braveness
  5. Aware them how to behave with strangers
  1. Teaching Techniques
  1. Provide important information in both oral and written formats
  2. Keep instructions brief and uncomplicated. Repeat them word to word
  3. Announce the dates of examination/tests well in advance
  4. When teaching a lesson ;state objective of lesson, review previous lesson and summarize periodically
  5. Use more than one way to demonstrate or explain information
  6. Use school digital board. Correlate/Associate textbook content/information with the best material audio/video/you tube. Online material must be relevant to age/class/subject
  7. Prepare topic worksheet/holiday worksheet in own subject which is supervised and checked by the Principal
  8. Keeping records of Unit Test/Class Test/Saturday Test/Internal Examination
  9. Keeping records of students’ extracurricular activity (Various competitions i.e. dance, song, drawing and painting, debate and speech, sports and games etc )
  10. Checking Student’s diary on daily basis
  11. Keeping his/her copy of books of subject/subjects he/she teaches for each class from store
  12. Correcting Exercise book/Notebook of each student regularly and according to school guidelines
  13. Reach classroom on time(note more than 3 minutes)during changing over period
  1. Zero Periods: – Work on your own way of English Speaking. Provide enough practice for each student to speak in English. More focus will be given to academic challenged student(weak student)
  2. Lesson Plan: – Prepare your lesson/topic plan well in advanced. Teacher has to carry lesson/topic plan in each class. (Compulsory). Submit your lesson plan on Saturday without fail. Feel free to prepare lesson/topic plan in advance according to your convenience. Divide a big lesson into different main topics and prepare lesson plan ahead. 
  3. Remedial Period:- Ensure proper seating arrangement for the weak students near by the teacher (i)Help weak students (ii) teach weak student like a tuition teacher (iii)ensure equal level of learning for one and all

 Other Essential Duties

  1. Participating in the co-curricular and extracurricular activities in the school
  2. Assisting in the planning and organizing of school events and functions (Inter house Competitions, Inter- school competitions, concerts, plays, prize day, etc)
  3. Undertake professional duties and organizational tasks as reasonable delegated by the principal
  1. Non Academic Responsibility

  1. Ensure that electric fans/bulbs are not on if the students are not in the class or before leaving any classroom
  2. Ensure that classroom is neat and clean if not then inform concern person to do it
  3. Ensure that the classroom items like chalks, duster, charts etc. must be written in demand register placed on reception counter in at least one week advance
  4. Ensure that students are maintaining discipline during going to water point/washroom/playground/returning to class/ eating in mess/maintain silence
  5. Ensure that your suggestion for improvement of academic and non-academic environment of school must be written in teacher’s suggestion register placed on reception counter.
  1. School rules :-

 (1) Kindly avoid carrying mobile phone in the classroom. Keep your mobile at safe place. School will not be responsible for lose/steal/damage of mobile

(2) Please avoid notebook correction in the classroom. It is strictly prohibited; however you may check/review given class work for a while (according to teacher need)

 (3) Teacher will send only one student at a time for washroom/drinking water/other task (along with out pass)

 (4) Teacher will join assembly on daily basis.

(5) Kindly keep your stationary or articles/belongings at safe place.

  1. Physical punishment is strictly prohibited in school campus/classroom. Kindly avoid it. In case of incompleteness of home work/class work/, kindly write notice in the diary. If it is repeated, immediately bring the case into principal’ notice.
  2. Student’s Leave Application: – Collect leave application from absent student duly signed by parent/guardian and maintain its record. (Duty of Class teacher)
  3. Teacher’s Leave Application: – Kindly take prior permission of CL or Leave on school leave register.
  4. Teacher’s School Uniform: – Wear school uniform and identity card on regular basis.
  5. Personal Care
  • Always wear school uniform prescribed by management
  • Always wear employee I Card
  • Always wear helmet if you ride motorbike and always carry your driving license.
  • We wish a fruitful stays at school. We firmly believe that you will contribute your 100% whole heartedly for the growth of organization. We are looking forward for your cooperation for the growth of your professionalism itself as well as for the organization.

Duties and Responsibilities of a School Teacher rajeev ranjan

Principal

 

Rajeev Ranjan

Indian Educationist

Duties and Responsibilities of an Examination in Charge

Teacher’s classroom observation format

Weak Students Teacher Makes a Difference-Effective Teaching Techniques

Project Based Learning-Importance and Benefits in Pedagogical Perspectives

Checklist for Maintaining Discipline in the Classroom and School for Teacher

Notebook correction checklist for school teacher

Student Misbehaviour- Being Humane without being Judgmental

 

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CBSE affiliation school inspection committee members duties and responsibilities

 

Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) New Delhi

CBSE AFFILIATION INSPECTION COMMITTEE MEMBERS

DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES

CBSE Affiliation Bye-Laws is most important documents for further proceeding for CBSE Affiliation. The principal and the school manager should read “CBSE Affiliation Bye-Laws” thoroughly before going for the CBSE affiliation process. CBSE Affiliation Bye-Laws and CBSE Online School Affiliation & Monitoring System have clearly mentioned all essential process and procedure regarding its affiliation process.

CBSE New Delhi developed a transparent online affiliation system to conduct fair inspection process before giving affiliation number.  Inspection committee members play crucial role for imparting comprehensive inspection process for imparting quality education system in India.  Inspection committee examine school’s building including laboratories, library, classroom, games and sports facilities, process of teaching learning in a few classes and other facilities thoroughly to assess its eligibility as well as suitability for the affiliation with the (CBSE) board. In fact board lays total stress on quality education, observance of rules mentioned in the Affiliation Bye-Laws, provisions of infrastructure, payment of full salaries as per as the scale of pay, D.A and other admissible allowances prescribed by the State Government. Inspection committee examines the service benefits to teachers, staff and justifiable rationalization of the fee structure vis-a vis the facilities provided to the students.

Inspection committee members examine physical features available in school, employees empowerment plan, facilities for imparting quality education, and several other CBSE norms prescribed in  “CBSE Affiliation Bye-Laws”. Inspection committee members physically verify all essential documents prescribed in “CBSE Affiliation Bye-Laws” and on CBSE Online School Affiliation & Monitoring System. Inspection committee members can demand each and every document related to school systems for physical verification.  School authorities have to present all documents before the inspection committee members. 

INSPECTION COMMITTEE MEMBERS FOCUS ON THE FOLLOWING SPECIFIC POINTS

CBSE Affiliation Bye-Laws and CBSE Online School Affiliation & Monitoring System (http://cbseaff.nic.in/cbse_aff/form/Instruction.aspx ) have discussed in details about the essential documents and conditions for school affiliation with CBSE, New Delhi. Broadly Inspection committee members examine and verify all necessary documents in details which are mentioned in CBSE Affiliation Bye-Laws and on CBSE Online School Affiliation & Monitoring System for CBSE Affiliations. These are as follows:-

  1. No Objection Certificate AND Formal prior Recognition letter. It is mandatory to upload both NOC and Recognition letter. Both have to be scanned as a single pdf file and uploaded. OR Recommendation from Embassy of India (if applicable)
  2. Copy of Registration letter of the Trust/Society Management Committee
  3. Land Certificate from concerned authority (As per enclosed proforma).
  4. Affidavit(As per enclosed proforma) of :
  1. Non Proprietary Character of society from First Class Magistrate.
  2. No relation amongst the School Managing Committee members.
  3. That society/school is not part of any franchise arrangement as per clause 19.1(i) (ii) and clause 7.2
  4. That without Affiliation school will not start class 9th/11th otherwise liable for suitable action as per clause 15.9 of Affiliation bye laws of the Board.
  1. Infrastructure detail photographs
  2. Fire safety certificate
  3. Health & Sanitation certificate
  4. Safe drinking water certificate
  5. Building Safety Certificate
  6. Staff EPF deduction certificate
  7. Reserve funds proof (Only in case of upgradation)
  8. Balance sheet/Financial status certified by CA for last 3 years
  9. Salary paid through ECS/Cheque (Certificate issued by the associated bank)
  10. Staff Salary Certificate issued by District Education Officer
  11. In case of switch over,
  1. Affidavit for closure of classes in phased manner along with
  2. 3 years State board result in gazette issued by state board
  1. Land registration and/or lease documents

In order to bring more transparency in the process of affiliation, CBSE made it mandatory that the process of inspection will be video- graphed and a 5 minute clip will be prepared for uploading the clip on youtube. CBSE clearly mentioned that the videographer shall be arranged by the school. The following will be covered in the videography:

    1. Building including labs, library, classrooms and other facilities.
    2. Games & sports facilities.
    3. Process of teaching learning in a few classes.
    4. Group photo of staff.
  1. School has to upload a 5 minutes compact video of school inspection on you tube and you tube link will be shared with online inspection report.
  2. Inspection committee members verify basic information related to school, trust, trustee members, school management committee members in details etc.
  3. Inspection committee members verify “staff and service conditions” provided by the school in details. They basically check qualifications and experience of the principal, librarian, physical education teacher (PTI), special education, staff nurse etc. Inspection committee members examine “documents related to educational qualifications and experience of the head of institution/staff working in the school thoroughly”.
  4. Inspection committee members verify “the original land documents of the school”. They ensure that the address in land documents is same as the address of the school mentioned in NOC and recognition certificate. They examine whether the school is running from the same site as mentioned in the land documents, recognition certificate and NOC
  5. Inspection committee members verify “whether the area of campus is the same as in order and school land is in a single compact plot. If the school land is not in a single plot, area of different plots and distance between plots along with the information on which of these plots the school building is situated may clearly be given in the report.
  6. Inspection committee members specifically verify “whether the school has started classes IX, X, XI or XII (as the case may be) or not without prior permission from CBSE”
  7. Inspection committee members examine “whether the school management is running another school/institution in the same premises with different name and submit its details”.
  8. Inspection committee members examine “whether the name of the staff members published in the school prospectus and school diary are same as in the acquaintance roll of the school”.
    1. IC Members may check employees bank account/passbook issued by bank
  9. Inspection committee members examine “documents related to educational qualifications and experience of the head of institution/staff working in the school may be thoroughly checked”.
    1. Qualification details of all teachers/staffs
  10. The Inspection Committee members ensure that the documents mentioned in or related to “Note for Principal” may check specifically and upload at the relevant place in the online report. The committee may upload all the documents again if the same are not properly scanned, illegible, expired, incomplete etc.
  11. In case the application is for affiliation to Senior Secondary Level, the inspection committee is also identify the subjects in consultation with the school authorities as per syllabus/guidelines for the senior school certificate examination which are to be introduced by the school and verify the facilities available for each subject and submit recommendations carefully along with list of subjects. (CBSE Guidelines for School and Inspection Committee Members)

Inspection committee members have authority to investigate all necessary elements which are responsible for bringing quality education in the school. In fact, Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) New Delhi ensures intensive as well as comprehensive inspection for promoting quality education for building a great nation.

Principal

Rajeev Ranjan

CBSE affiliation inspection committee members duties and responsibilities rajeev ranjan

CBSE AFFILIATION REQUIRED DOCUMENTS AND CHECKLIST FOR SCHOOL FROM www cbseaff nic in

cbse affiliation procedure documents guidelines

Resource Website and Documents

http://cbse.nic.in/newsite/index.html

http://www.cbse.nic.in/affili~1/affiguide.htm

http://cbseaff.nic.in/cbse_aff/form/Instruction.aspx

http://cbseaff.nic.in/cbse_aff/Attachment/OnlineServices/Checklist_Applicant%20_Schools.pdf

CBSE Affiliation Process & Essential Documents for Online Affiliation Application and School Inspection According to CBSE Affiliation Bye-Laws

 

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Sex Education in School

Comprehensive sexuality education-sex education-comprehensive-education-health education-teen sex education-benefits of sex education-school education-techniques to give sex education

Rajeev Ranjan

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CBSE Affiliation Process & Essential Documents for Online Affiliation Application and School Inspection According to CBSE Affiliation Bye-Laws

Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) New Delhi

CBSE Affiliation Procedure

Process & Essential Documents for Online Affiliation Application and School Inspection According to CBSE Affiliation Bye-Laws

CBSE INSPESCTION DOCUMENTS

CBSE Affiliation Bye-Laws is most important document. The principal and the school manager should read “CBSE Affiliation Bye-Laws” thoroughly before going for the CBSE affiliation process. CBSE Affiliation Bye-Laws and CBSE Online School Affiliation & Monitoring System have clearly mentioned all essential process and procedure regarding its affiliation process.

CBSE Affiliation Bye-Laws are effective from 20th January, 1988 with modifications/amendments from time to time. Those schools which fulfill the essential conditions of the Affiliation Bye-Laws may be considered for Provisional Affiliation for a period of three years subject to fulfilling all the norms and conditions of the Affiliation Bye-Laws within in this period. 

Which types of schools are eligible for affiliation with Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) New Delhi?

CBSE Online School Affiliation & Monitoring System mentioned that under following school category can go for affiliation with Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) New Delhi. These are as follows:-

  • Government or Government aided schools
  • Schools run by autonomous organisations under the Government like Kendriya Vidyalaya Sangathan (KVS), Navodaya Vidyalaya Samiti (NVS), Central Tibetan Schools Organization (CTSO), Sainik Schools Society etc.
  • Schools run by Government Department directly like Defence, Railways etc.
  • Schools managed directly by Public Sector Undertakings or by reputed societies of Public Sector Undertakings under the financial control of such Public Sector Undertakings or by Societies formed by such Undertakings
  • Private, unaided schools. (Runs by Registered Trust and Society)

Does School only apply online for CBSE Affiliation or in other category also? What is purpose for applying online for CBSE Affiliation?

CBSE Online School Affiliation & Monitoring System mentioned that under following school category can go for affiliation with Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) New Delhi. These are as follows:-

Approval of Middle Class Syllabus/Affiliation or Switch Over up to Secondary level/ Upgradation or Switch Over to Senior Secondary level

Additional Subjects, applicable in case of already CBSE affiliated Senior Secondary schools.

Extension of Provisional Affiliation in case of already CBSE affiliated school up to Secondary / Senior Secondary level.

Is there any provision for Composite Affiliation up to Class XII?

It is clearly mentioned on CBSE Online School Affiliation & Monitoring System (http://cbseaff.nic.in/cbse_aff/form/Instruction.aspx ) that “there will be no Composite Affiliation up to Class XII except in ‘switch over cases’ mentioned at Point No. 2 above.” For non-switch over cases, a school has to first affiliate itself with CBSE upto Secondary stage and run class IX for a minimum period of one year before applying for Upgradation to Senior Secondary level.

What is process for depositing affiliation fee?

It is clearly mentioned on CBSE Online School Affiliation & Monitoring System Website that Affiliation fee is to be deposited by online banking/ debit card/credit card/NEFT.

What are essential documents and conditions for fulfilling the criteria for the school affiliation with Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) New Delhi?

CBSE Affiliation Bye-Laws and CBSE Online School Affiliation & Monitoring System (http://cbseaff.nic.in/cbse_aff/form/Instruction.aspx) have discussed in details about the essential documents and conditions for school affiliation with CBSE, New Delhi. These are as follows:-

  1.  ‘ i) No Objection Certificate’ ii) Recognition Letter from the State Government OR Recommendation from concerned Embassy of India in case of schools located outside India. The schools seeking affiliation with the Board must have formal prior recognition of the State/UT govt.  The application either should be forwarded by the State Govt. or there should be a NOC to the effect that State Govt. has no objection to the affiliation of the school with the Board.
  2. Ownership or lease of requisite land in the name of the school or Society/Trust running the school. (If the land has been taken on lease, acceptable lease period is 30 years).
  3. Availability of well qualified staff as per qualifications detailed in Chapter IX of the Affiliation Bye laws. The number of PRTs, TGTs, & PGTs should be sufficient to teach respective sections.
  4. Non-proprietary character of the Trust or Society running the school (to be shown by way of an affidavit).
  5. Payment of salaries to staff not less than the corresponding categories of employees in the State/Central Government. 
  6. In case of Private unaided schools, the schools must be established by Societies registered under the Societies Registration Act 1860 of the Government of India or under Acts of the State Governments as educational, charitable or religious societies having non-proprietary character or by Trusts

Note:- NOC/Recognition is not required in cases of schools run by Government  Departments/Government Undertakings/managed by Societies for Govt. Undertakings and financed and controlled by the Undertakings.

 Which are required documents to attach while applying for APPROVAL OF MIDDLE CLASS SYLLABUS / PROVISIONAL AFFILIATION OR SWITCH OVER UPTO SECONDARY LEVEL / UPGRADATION OR SWITCH OVER TO SENIOR SECONDARY LEVEL?

CBSE Affiliation Bye-Laws and CBSE Online School Affiliation & Monitoring System (http://cbseaff.nic.in/cbse_aff/form/Instruction.aspx ) have discussed in details about the essential documents and conditions for school affiliation with CBSE, New Delhi. These are as follows:-

  1. No Objection Certificate AND Formal prior Recognition letter. It is mandatory to upload both NOC and Recognition letter. Both have to be scanned as a single pdf file and uploaded. OR Recommendation from Embassy of India (if applicable)
  2. Copy of Registration letter of the Trust/Society Management Committee
  3. Land Certificate from concerned authority (As per enclosed proforma).
  4. Affidavit(As per enclosed proforma) of :
  1. Non Proprietary Character of society from First Class Magistrate.
  2. No relation amongst the School Managing Committee members.
  3. That society/school is not part of any franchise arrangement as per clause 19.1(i) (ii) and clause 7.2
  4. That without Affiliation school will not start class 9th/11th otherwise liable for suitable action as per clause 15.9 of Affiliation bye laws of the Board.
  1. Infrastructure detail photographs
  2. Fire safety certificate
  3. Health & Sanitation certificate
  4. Safe drinking water certificate
  5. Building Safety Certificate
  6. Staff EPF deduction certificate
  7. Reserve funds proof (Only in case of upgradation)
  8. Balance sheet/Financial status certified by CA for last 3 years
  9. Salary paid through ECS/Cheque (Certificate issued by the associated bank)
  10. Staff Salary Certificate issued by District Education Officer
  11. In case of switch over,
  1. Affidavit for closure of classes in phased manner along with
  2. 3 years State board result in gazette issued by state board
  1. Land registration and/or lease documents

How much amount schools need to deposit for seeking approval at various levels i.e. up to secondary/senior secondary level? What is an affiliation fee for seeking approval at various levels i.e. up to secondary/senior secondary level?

CBSE Online School Affiliation & Monitoring System (Website) has mentioned updated affiliation fee amount under various categories i.e. Approval of middle class syllabus, Fresh Provisional Affiliation for Secondary Classes (Class X). In fact, it will be the best for school manager and principal to visit CBSE Online School Affiliation & Monitoring System (Website)  http://cbseaff.nic.in/cbse_aff/form/Instruction.aspx for knowing details updated affiliation fee structure. 

What are required documents need to attach for applying for EXTENSION OF PROVISIONAL AFFILIATION as scanned copies?

CBSE Affiliation Bye-Laws and CBSE Online School Affiliation & Monitoring System (http://cbseaff.nic.in/cbse_aff/form/Instruction.aspx ) have discussed in details about the essential documents need to attach for applying for EXTENSION OF PROVISIONAL AFFILIATION as scanned copies. These are as follows:-

  1. A Scanned copy of Reserve Fund maintained as per norms.
  2. A Scanned copy of EPF code No. allotted by the EPF department.
  3. A Scanned copy of Affidavit to the effect that the school is not sponsoring candidates for Board’s Examination of any other School/Branch, which is not affiliated to the Board.
  4. A Scanned copy of Staff Salary Certificate issued by District Education Officer.

(Note- jpg and pdf files only & not more than 2 MB in size)

CBSE New Delhi is the most prestigious board in India. Inspection committee examines school’s building including laboratories, library, classroom, games and sports facilities, process of teaching learning in a few classes and other facilities thoroughly to assess its eligibility as well as suitability for the affiliation with the (CBSE) board. In fact board lays total stress on quality education, observance of rules mentioned in the Affiliation Bye-Laws, provisions of infrastructure, payment of full salaries as per as the scale of pay, D.A and other admissible allowances prescribed by the State Government. Inspection committee examines the service benefits to teachers, staff and justifiable rationalization of the fee structure vis-a vis the facilities provided to the students.

Affiliation Bye-laws – CBSE

http://http://cbseaff.nic.in/cbse_aff/Attachment/OnlineServices/AffiliationByeLaws_14112012.pdf

http://cbseaff.nic.in/cbse_aff/Attachment/OnlineServices/Checklist_Applicant%20_Schools.pdf

cbse affiliation procedure documents guidelines

CBSE AFFILIATION REQUIRED DOCUMENTS AND CHECKLIST FOR SCHOOL FROM www cbseaff nic in

Principal

Rajeev Ranjan

Resource Website and Documents

http://cbse.nic.in/newsite/index.html

http://www.cbse.nic.in/affili~1/affiguide.htm

http://cbseaff.nic.in/cbse_aff/form/Instruction.aspx

 

 

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Teacher’s classroom observation format

Teacher’s classroom observation format

School principal, teachers’ educator and educator observe teacher’s classroom teaching techniques. The main objective is to guide teacher for managing classroom effectively, deliver designed lesson to the students, effective teaching techniques , students involvement in the classroom etc. This observation leads to teachers’ empowerment. It should not be fault finding observation instead it should be teachers’ empowerment through providing proper guidelines and equipping teachers  with effective teaching techniques. Its’ main objective is to make  them alert, aware and sensitive educators who can feel the pulse of students’ need and cater the need of academically challenged learners as well as academically gifted learners in the classroom.

 

Teacher’s Classroom Observation format rajeev ranjan

teacher classroom observation feedback rajeev ranjan

Rajeev Ranjan

Project Based Learning-Importance and Benefits in Pedagogical Perspectives

Checklist for Maintaining Discipline in the Classroom and School for Teacher

Notebook correction checklist for school teacher

http://www.rajeevelt.com/student-misbehaviour-school-teacher-classroom/rajeev-ranjan/

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Weak Students Teacher Makes a Difference-Effective Teaching Techniques

Best Teaching Techniques for teaching weak students

Rajeev Ranjan

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Project Based Learning-Importance and Benefits in Pedagogical Perspectives

Project Based Learning; a Real Learning Experience

Project Based Learning; a Real Learning Experience” ” is an integrated learning approach. A project is meaningful if it fulfills two criteria. First, students must perceive it as personally meaningful, as a task that matters and that they want to do well. Second, a meaningful project fulfills an educational purpose. Well-designed and well-implemented PBL—————————–

Project Based Learning; a Real Learning Experience- Introduction

 A systemic teaching method that engages students in learning essential knowledge and skills through an extended, student-influenced inquiry process structured around complex, authentic questions and carefully designed tasks and products.   In other words, a task or problem engaged in usually by a group of students to supplement and apply classroom studies. It is considered as an alternative to paper-based, rote memorization, teacher-led classrooms.

Proponents of project-based learning cite numerous benefits to the implementation of these strategies in the classroom including a greater depth of understanding of concepts, broader knowledge base, improved communication and interpersonal/social skills, enhanced leadership skills, increased creativity, and improved writing skills.

“When teachers and their students are “connected” through project based learning, the “world” becomes an indispensable curriculum resource.”-(NCF 2005)  Teachers are no longer their students’ primary sources of information. Instead, they are the designers of learning who created the conditions for the students to conduct their own inquiries, and advisers to whom learners can come as they create their product. It is in fact, also known as inquiry-based learning /inquiry-based learning, and problem-based learning.  Initially, John Dewey promoted the idea of “learning by doing in ‘My Pedagogical Creed’. It was popular at the beginning of the 20th century and again in the current century. Project-based learning has been associated with the “situated learning” perspective of James G. Greeno (2006) and on the constructivist theories of Jean Piaget.

Today, teachers around the world are designing projects for their students because they ignite a shared passion for learning in both students and staff; they foster a wide range of skills (such as time management, collaboration, and problem solving) that students will need at school, college, university, and in the workplace; and they can be tailored to suit students with a wide range of abilities and learning needs. Fortunately, designing projects help students to master the content which they are required to learn. The best way to do this is by using ‘backwards planning’. (The Teacher’s Guide to Project-based Learning). PBL provides a new life experience for collaborative learning i.e. how to share, care and come out from real situation of conflict (working in group) where a certain number of people is working to achieve a single goal.

 

 Objective of Project Based Learning mentioned in (Project-Based Learning ,  A  Resource for Instructors and Program Coordinators, National Academy Foundation and Pearson Foundation). Project based classroom is dynamic and interactive. Teacher is an active learner and facilitator. It starts with a problem, facts and skills in a relevant context.

 Well-designed projects ask students to:

  • Tackle real problems and issues that have importance to people beyond the classroom. Projects emanate from issues of real importance to students and adults in the community and answer the age-old student question “Why do we need to know this?”
  • Actively engage in their learning and make important choices during the project.

Projects make room for student choice and creativity while still demanding student mastery of essential content, enabling students and teachers to interact as co-learners in the experience, rather than in the traditional student-teacher relationship.

  • Demonstrate in tangible ways that they have learned key concepts and skills.

Projects provide opportunities for students to produce observable evidence that they have mastered rigorous curricular standards as they apply their learning and solve the problem at hand.  PBL empowers students with life skills i.e.  critical thinking, problem solving, decision making, and various forms of learning skills. Projects and exhibitions also provide extensive evidence of process work and self-directed learning. 

Key Points of Project Based Learning:-

  1. A project is meaningful if it fulfils two criteria. First, students must perceive it as personally meaningful, as a task that matters and that they want to do well. Second, a meaningful project fulfils an educational purpose. Well-designed and well-implemented Project Based Learning (PBL) is meaningful in both ways.
  2. In terms of making a project feel meaningful to students, the more voice and choice, the better.
  3. Teachers should design projects with the extent of student choice that fits their own style and students. On the “the more the better” end of the scale, students can decide following points:
  4. What product they will create?
  5. What resources they will use?
  6. How they will structure their time?
  7. “PBL integrates knowing and doing. Students learn knowledge and elements of the core curriculum, but also apply what they know to solve authentic problems and produce results that matter.” Markham (2011)
  8. ‘PBL refers to students designing, planning, and carrying out an extended project that produces a publicly-exhibited output such as a product, publication, or presentation.
  9. PBL emphasizes learning activities that are long-term, interdisciplinary and student-centered.
  10. PBL differs from traditional inquiry by its emphasis on students’ collaborative or individual artefact construction to represent what is being learned.
  11. PBL organizes around an open-ended driving question or challenge.
  12. PBL project plan should include the essential curriculum content for the project.
  13. PBL promotes critical thinking, problem solving, collaboration, and various forms of communication, often known as “21st Century Skills.
  14. PBL promotes students to use technology in meaningful ways to help them investigate, collaborate, analyze, synthesizes and presents their learning.
  15. PBL is an effective strategy for teaching complex skills such as planning, communicating, problem solving, and decision making. ( Dr. John W. Thomas, 2000)
  16. PBL can help increase student attendance, attitude, and self-reliance. For teachers, PBL can help increase professionalism and collaboration. ( Dr. John W. Thomas, 2000)
  17. Role of student is to ask questions, build knowledge, and determine a real-world solution to the issue/question presented. PBL allows them to think rationally on how to solve problems. PBL forces students to take ownership of their success.
  18. Collecting information
  19. Developing question
  • Exploring material and discussing outcome with peers
  1. Reflecting on the result
  2. Role of teacher Project Based Learning is that of a facilitator. The instructor regulates students and ensures that students should remain focused and have a deep understanding of the concepts being investigated. The students are held accountable to these goals through ongoing feedback and assessments. We always face challenges while implementing a concept and learning new things. PBL is students’ friendly learning approach under kind guidance of a teacher to involve students in working on tasks. However, there is several questions arise for implementing PBL in real life teaching learning situation. We can also see the teachers’ role in following areas.
  3. Offer guidance on subject/theme/topic
  4. Formation of different types of learner and their performance level
  • Holding meeting for further course of action
  1. Facilitating learners in different layers of project

Teachers can also meditate on following points:-

  1. Will this project engage my students?

The Learning Futures schools use a checklist to gauge the likely engagement of students in any given project idea. We call it ‘the Four Ps of Deep Engagement’. Before going too far with an idea for a project ask yourself whether the project is:

  • Placed – is it located in a place that is important to students (e.g. their home, community, town, city or virtual environment)?
  • Purposeful – will it result in a product, service or body of knowledge that others will make use of? Will the process seem authentic to students?
  • Pervasive – will students be sufficiently engaged in the project’s activities that they’ll want to voluntarily take the learning outside school and school hours? Is it likely to broaden students’ horizons?
  • Passion-led – Does the project tap into students’ passions?
  1. Will this project engage me?

It’s important that facilitator is personally curious and involve about the project’s outcome, that s/he will learn new things from it.

  1. Will my students learn something meaningful from this project?

It’s a good idea to make a list of the things you expect your students to have learned: this should include subject content, skills, as well as attributes to be developed (e.g. confidence, resilience, and resourcefulness).( The Learning Futures school)   

During the project planning phase, teachers must make sure that the project will result in student-generated evidence of learning that aligns closely with intended skill and content standards. (National Academy Foundation and Pearson Foundation)

 Integration of Inter- Disciplinary Subjects

PBL promotes integrated learning approach in this fast growing world where technological integration requires at every step of learning. It is combined learning approach where we can integrate different subjects into one project work i.e. a language teacher asks students to prepare a project on ‘bird migration’. He enquirers other subject teacher that, is there a lesson related to nature/environment or other interdisciplinary theme or not in respective subjects. He finds several correlated lessons in different subjects. He finds that students can get good ideas from subject English (unit –Environment), Science (Diversity in Living Organism), Social Science (Natural Vegetation and Wild Life) and Mathematics (Statics). (PBL, CBSE) Teacher guides his students to collect the material/content from different subjects, students collect ideas which help student to work on the given project. This activity increases not only interest of students to read other subjects but also to give equal importance to all subjects.   PBL approach provides opportunity for the teacher to become a facilitator in real sense. He becomes the torch bearer in developing tools and techniques on how to examine and analyze issue, the information they need to collect, planning, organizing the framework of the project. The projected action will be initiated by the students.

 Difference between “Activity” and “Project”

There is much confusion among teacher about the difference between ‘activity’ and ‘project’ in regular teaching learning process. Project based learning guide developed by National Academy Foundation and Pearson Foundation clearly mentioned the difference i.e.

ACTIVITY PROJECT
Students in a history class study Westward Expansion for three weeks, culminating with a “Frontier Feast” where students dress in period costumes and eat typical western fare from the era.

 

Students in a history class spend three weeks focused on the essential question “How did Westward Expansion impact our community?” Students learn about the period, research local connections, and design a museum exhibit featuring historical artifacts, primary source documents, and expert commentary from local historians. The exhibit is mounted in the community center lobby, and students serve as docents to the general public.

 

 Advantages of Project Based Learning:

  1. Rivet & Krajcki, 2004 and William & Linn, 2003 state that “research has demonstrated that students in project-based learning classrooms get higher scores than students in traditional classroom.”
  2. PBL develops responsibility, or ownership among students for their learning, their self-esteem soars. It also helps to create better work habits and attitudes toward learning.
  3. Project-Based Learning students also learn skills that are essential in higher education.
  4. PBL allows pupils to expand their minds and think beyond what they normally would.
  5. Project-Based Learning students learn skills, in fact, more than just finding answers.

 Disadvantages of Project Based Learning:-

Unplanned lessons can result in the wasting of precious class time. If the project does not remain on task and content driven the student will not be successful in learning the material.

 Assessment in Project Based Learning:-

 Assessment isn’t just about the final product.  In fact, final assessment will focus on the products that students have produced, and how they went about producing them (the process). Despite this, it is worth enough to remember that not everybody needs to produce the same product in order to demonstrate their learning. Questions that final assessment should address are followings:-

  1. Does the product meet or exceed the criteria we set at the start at the project?
  2. Has the student developed the skills required for the execution of this project?
  3. Has the student learned the curriculum content required for this project?

Ron Berger rightly states that real assessment take place when a teacher is minute observer and observes his students holistically. Teachers often mistakenly presume that a project’s final product is the only thing they should assess, which leads them to assume that they should be able to tell whether the kids learned what they needed to learn by looking at the final product.

Actually, assessing what kids know is ongoing throughout a project. The product is the motivation for learning the material, but it won’t demonstrate that they learned it all. For example, in the physics standards project, each kid only demonstrated one physics concept, so how do you know that they learned the rest of the material?

The answer to this question is that the book isn’t the assessment. You can assess what they’ve learned before the book comes out, and afterwards. In Physics Standards they gave all the students a physics test with all the concepts in it. You need to do assessment throughout the project so that when they’re doing great artistic stuff, you know that they know what they need to know. You can’t leave it all to the end.

(Ron Berger, Chief Programme Officer, Expeditionary Learning)

Conclusion:

Blumenfeld et al. says that, “Project-based learning is a comprehensive perspective focused on teaching by engaging students in investigation. Within this framework, students pursue solutions to nontrivial problems by asking and refining questions, debating ideas, making predictions, designing plans and/or experiments, collecting and analyzing data, drawing conclusions, communicating their ideas and findings to others, asking new questions, and creating artefacts. Projects vary greatly in the depth of the questions explored, the clarity of the learning goals, the content and structure of the activity, and guidance from the teacher.

 The core idea of project-based learning is that real-world problems capture students’ interest and provoke serious thinking as the students acquire and apply new knowledge in a problem-solving context. The teacher plays the role of facilitator, working with students to frame worthwhile questions, structuring meaningful tasks, coaching both knowledge development and social skills, and carefully assessing what students have learned from the experience.

 Researched and Prepared by

Rajeev Ranjan

Principal

B.Ed(English)

Post Graduate Diploma in Teaching English (PGDTE)

English and Foreign Languages University, Hyderabad

&

BA & MA (English)

Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi

www.rajeevranjan.net

Email .Id: rajeevbhuvns@gmail.com

 References and resources for further reading:-

Article, 7 Essentials for Project-Based Learning(John Larmer , John R. Mergerndoller, In Educational Leadership, Buck Institute of Education)

The Buck Institute for Education (http://www.bie.org/)

Using Project-Based Learning to Increase Student Engagement and Understanding March 2012(TEXAS INSTRUMENT)

Project-Based Learning,  A  Resource for Instructors and Program Coordinators(National Academy Foundation and Pearson Foundation)

PBL is consistent with best practices in instructional design. To learn more, visit ASCD’s Understanding by Design Exchange. (http://www.ubdexchange.org/default.html)

PBL as an instructional strategy to create rigorous and relevant learning experiences by Dr. John W. Thomas’s (http://www.bobpearlman.org/BestPractices/PBL_Research.pdf)

Stanford University’s School Redesign Network includes links to many resources that help define and understand PBL. (http://www.schoolredesign.net/srn/server.php?idx=850).

The Small Schools Project boasts an amazing collection of resources to assist those educators creating small learning communities and small schools where PBL can thrive. (http://smallschoolsproject.org/)

The High Tech High network features schools designed to support PBL in the classroom.

(http://www.hightechhigh.org/)

Project Examples

PBL at NAF, Digital Storytelling for Academy Students and Instructors

(http://pearsonfoundation.org/NAF) The NAF/Pearson Foundation Digital Storytelling Project is modelled on exemplary PBL principles.

What Kids Can Do (http://www.whatkidscando.org/index.asp) This national nonprofit organization focused on student voice has links to several outstanding projects in their “projects and products” section (under “Student Work & Voice”).

STEPs (link to http://itd.usd259.org/steps/pbl.htm) The Standards for Teachers through Educational Projects site includes video downloads of exemplary projects.

Edutopia – The George Lucas Educational Foundation (http://www.edutopia.org/) The George Lucas Educational Foundation’s includes video clips highlighting exemplary projects.

Great Student Work (http://www.bobpearlman.org/BestPractices/StudentWork.htm)  Educational reform expert Bob Pearlman offers links to exceptional project examples and assessments from around the globe.

Best Wishes