Major Domains of development at Early Childhood Care and Education

National Curriculum Framework for Foundational Stage-2022 describes:-

The Foundational Stage is for children between the ages of 3 to 8 years. There has been a long tradition of inquiry both in India and other cultures on the various domains of development that have been observed in young children that are both natural and desirable.

The Panchakosha description in the Taittiriya Upanishad is one of the earliest articulations of the different domains of development of the human being. These descriptions remain relevant along with the more modern understanding that has emerged through Developmental Biology, Psychology and Cognitive Neurosciences.


Physical Development, or annamaya kosha and pranamaya kosha understood together, includes bodily awareness and embodied learning through active engagement of all sensorial perceptions.
Emotional and spiritual development or the manomaya kosha involves becoming aware of and skilfully regulating our emotions.

The domain of Socio-emotional and Ethical Development, thus emerges as an important domain of development both from the Indian traditions and current research.

The development of the intellect, or vijnanamaya kosha, is emphasized to engage meaningfully with the cognitive and conscious aspects of human experience. The domain of Cognitive Development
captures this aspect of development.

Anandamaya kosha, or experience of transcendence, is best addressed for this age group through arts and culture. Thus, including the domain of Aesthetic and Cultural Development, makes
the educational experience holistic and complete.

NEP 2020 has emphasised on Foundational Literacy and Numeracy as an ‘urgent and necessary prerequisite to learning.’ This emphasis has been realised by giving special attention to Foundational
Literacy through the domain of Language and Literacy Development and Foundational Numeracy through the domain of Cognitive Development.

Finally, the Foundational Stage is also seen as setting the foundations for formal schooling. The development of Positive Learning Habits that are more appropriate for formal school environments
becomes another important Curricular Goal for this Stage.



National Curriculum Framework for Foundational Stage-2022