Multiple Intelligence and Its Implication in Education

Multiple Intelligence is a theory proposed by psychologist Howard Gardner in 1983, suggesting that intelligence is not a single, unified concept, but rather a collection of distinct abilities or intelligences. According to Gardner, individuals possess different types of intelligence, and these intelligences are relatively independent of one another.

Gardner initially identified seven primary intelligence, and later added an eighth.

Linguistic Intelligence:

This refers to the ability to use language effectively, both spoken and written. People with high linguistic intelligence excel in areas such as writing, speaking, storytelling, and language analysis.

Logical-Mathematical Intelligence:

This intelligence involves the ability to think logically, reason, and solve mathematical problems. It is commonly associated with scientific and mathematical thinking and is often found in mathematicians, scientists, and engineers.

Spatial Intelligence:

Spatial intelligence refers to the ability to think in three dimensions and visualize spatial relationships. People with high spatial intelligence tend to excel in fields such as architecture, art, engineering, and navigation.

Musical Intelligence:

Musical intelligence relates to the ability to understand and appreciate music. Individuals with high musical intelligence often have a strong sense of rhythm, pitch, melody, and can easily recognize patterns in music. They may excel in playing instruments, composing music, or understanding musical theory.

Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence:

This intelligence involves the ability to control one’s body movements and handle objects skillfully. People with high bodily-kinesthetic intelligence often excel in activities such as sports, dancing, acting, and crafting.

Interpersonal Intelligence:

Interpersonal intelligence refers to the ability to understand and interact effectively with others. Individuals with high interpersonal intelligence are skilled at perceiving emotions, motivations, and intentions of others, making them good leaders, negotiators, and counselors.

Intra -personal Intelligence:

Intra- personal intelligence relates to self-awareness and self-reflection. People with high intra- personal intelligence have a deep understanding of their own emotions, strengths, and weaknesses, and are often self-motivated and independent.

Naturalistic Intelligence:

Gardner later added naturalistic intelligence to his list. It pertains to the ability to recognize and classify natural objects, such as plants, animals, and geological formations. Those with high naturalistic intelligence may excel in fields like botany, zoology, environmental science, or gardening.

It’s important to note that Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences has received both praise and criticism within the field of psychology. Some argue that the concept of intelligence is still best understood as a general cognitive ability, while others believe that Gardner’s theory provides a more comprehensive and inclusive view of human abilities.