Cyber Crimes Against Children Key Terms and Key Definitions

Cyber Smart Citizen

School children, school teacher, principal, parents need to be educated on “How to be cyber smart”?

Why should child, parent, teacher and school principal be aware with key terms and definitions related to “Cyber Crime against Children?

Child abuse is finding new forms and channels through mobile and digital technologies. In India about 134 million children have access to mobile phones and the number is growing very fast with even faster access to internet. While this provides opportunities for accessing useful material for learning purposes, lack of digital literacy and online safety measures expose children to hazards of cyber crime. (PIB, India)–


Educating the children about their rights

Educating parent for safeguard their children against unwanted threat of cyber crime

Aware the child “different pros and cons” of internet

If you know something  then only you can use it

1 Child “Child” means a data principal below the age of eighteen years;,2018.pdf
2 Cyber The word ‘cyber’ is almost invariably the prefix for a term or the modifier of a compound word, rather than a stand-alone word. Its inference usually relates to electronic information (data) processing, information technology, electronic communications (data transfer) or information and computer systems. Only the complete term of the compound word (modifier+head) itself can be considered to possess actual meaning. The word cyber is generally believed to originate from the Ancient Greek verb κυβερεω (kybereo) ”to steer, to guide, to control”. Source: Finland’s Cyber Security Strategy Government Resolution 24 Jan 2013 ( )
  Oxford Dictionary Relating to or characteristic of the culture of computers, information technology, and virtual reality
3 Cyber Awareness [Cyber] Awareness refers to the security awareness of all persons sharing responsibility for information security. Understanding and motivation are necessary to ensure that security rules are observed and implemented on a continuous basis. To remind employees regularly of the importance of their activities for information security, they must be supported through targeted awareness-raising measures. Source: Austrian Cyber Security Strategy (2013)    
4 Cyber Crime Cyber-crimes against children have many forms including sex-texting, online grooming, production and distribution of child harmful material, cyber bullying, etc.(UNICEF) Cybercrime, or computer-oriented crime, is the crime that involves a computer and a network. Cybercrimes can be defined as: “Offences that are committed against individuals or groups of individuals with a criminal motive to intentionally harm the reputation of the victim or cause physical or mental harm, or loss, to the victim directly or indirectly, using modern telecommunication networks such as Internet (networks including but not limited to Chat rooms, emails, notice boards and groups) and mobile phones (Bluetooth/SMS/MMS)” Cybercrime is defined as a crime in which a computer is the object of the crime (hacking, phishing, spamming) or is used as a tool to commit an offense (child pornography, hate crimes). Cybercriminals may use computer technology to access personal information, business trade secrets or use the internet for exploitative or malicious purposes.
  Oxford Dictionary
[Cybercrime] Crime conducted via the Internet or some other computer network.
5 Cyber bullying Cyber bullying is using technology to bully or hurt someone else: Sending/sharing nasty, hurtful or abusive messages or emails Humiliating others by posting/sharing embarrassing videos or images Spreading rumours or lies online Setting up fake online profiles to hurt someone Excluding others online Repeated harassment and threatening messages (cyberstalking)  
6 Child Pornography Any representation, by whatever means, of a child engaged in real or simulated explicit sexual activities or representation of the sexual parts of a child, the dominant characteristics of which is depiction for a sexual purpose. UNICEF-Child-Protection-Online-India-pub_doc115-1(Page 17-19)  Child pornography is a form of child sexual exploitation.—-  “Printed or visual material containing explicit description or display of sexual organs or activity intended to stimulate sexual excitement”. (The Oxford Dictionary)
7 Child sexual abuse   Forcing, luring or persuading a child by any older person, male or female, to take part in sexual activities, which may happen with or without physical contact, off-line or online. (The new Terminology Guidelines clarify that sexual abuse of children requires no element of exchange, and can occur for the mere purpose of the sexual gratification of the person committing the act. Such abuse can be committed without explicit force…The mere fact of the sexual activity taking place is sufficient to constitute abuse. Furthermore, child sexual abuse can take the form of both contact and non-contact abuse.) UNICEF-Child-Protection-Online-India-pub_doc115-1(Page 17-19)
8 Child sexual abuse material Sexually explicit representation of children. (The new Terminology Guidelines define this as material depicting acts of sexual abuse and/or focusing on the genitalia of the child.) UNICEF-Child-Protection-Online-India-pub_doc115-1(Page 17-19)
9 Child sex tourism Deliberately seeking out children for sex during travels while taking advantage of the sense of anonymity afforded by the opportunity. (Under the new Terminology Guidelines, this term should be avoided and can be replaced by the term “sexual exploitation of children in the context of travel and tourism”.) UNICEF-Child-Protection-Online-India-pub_doc115-1(Page 17-19)
10 Commercial exploitation of children A form of sexual exploitation (of children) where the focus is specifically on monetary benefit through activities like production and consumption of child sexual abuse material (“child pornography”), prostitution of children, abuse and exploitation in the travel and tourism industries (“child sex tourism”) and trafficking in children for purposes of sexual exploitation. (The new Terminology Guidelines state simply that “a distinction can … be made between ‘sexual exploitation’ and ‘commercial sexual exploitation’, with the latter being a form of sexual exploitation where the focus is specifically on monetary benefit, often relating to organized criminality where the primary driver is economic gain”. UNICEF-Child-Protection-Online-India-pub_doc115-1(Page 17-19)
11 Cyber defamation Using words or images or signals online to lower the reputation or prestige of the target. UNICEF-Child-Protection-Online-India-pub_doc115-1(Page 17-19)  
12 Cyber extremism Any measure of imposing predetermined ideology using any online or digital platform, beyond the norms of existing common social way of life. UNICEF-Child-Protection-Online-India-pub_doc115-1(Page 17-19)
13 Cyber harassment Messaging abusive or other objectionable content to the target child or creating fake profiles in social media with the intention of targeting him or her.   UNICEF-Child-Protection-Online-India-pub_doc115-1(Page 17-19)
14 Cyber intimidation Communicating direct or implied threats through emails or messages in social media to inspire fear in the target child.   UNICEF-Child-Protection-Online-India-pub_doc115-1(Page 17-19)  
15 Cyber stalking Following someone on Internet/mobile for causing inconvenience, or harassment/extortion, or for other illegal motives. UNICEF-Child-Protection-Online-India-pub_doc115-1(Page 17-19)  
16 Digital literacy The ability to use information and communication technologies to find, evaluate, create, and communicate information, requiring both cognitive and technical skills. UNICEF-Child-Protection-Online-India-pub_doc115-1(Page 17-19)  
17 Digital media Digitized content (text, graphics, audio, and video) that can be transmitted over Internet or computer networks.   UNICEF-Child-Protection-Online-India-pub_doc115-1(Page 17-19)  
18 Exposure Public display, posting or forwarding of personal and private communication, images or video of the target child.   UNICEF-Child-Protection-Online-India-pub_doc115-1(Page 17-19)  
19 Grooming Preparing a child, significant adults and the environment for sexual abuse and exploitation or ideological manipulation. (The new Terminology Guidelines define grooming as ”the process of establishing/building a relationship with a child either in person or through the use of the Internet or other digital technologies to facilitate either online or offline sexual contact with that person”.)   UNICEF-Child-Protection-Online-India-pub_doc115-1(Page 17-19)  
20 Online sexual harassment Unwelcome sexual advances, request or demand for sexual favour, and other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature. “Sexual harassment” refers not only to sexual conduct with the explicit intention to violate the dignity of another person (i.e. purpose) but also to conduct of a sexual nature that a person experiences as offensive or intimidating UNICEF-Child-Protection-Online-India-pub_doc115-1(Page 17-19)
21 Phishing The act of sending an email to a user falsely claiming to be an established legitimate enterprise in an attempt to scam the user into surrendering private information. The user is usually directed to a website and asked to update personal information (e.g. password, credit card, bank account numbers) that is misused for identity theft UNICEF-Child-Protection-Online-India-pub_doc115-1(Page 17-19) Phishing is the fraudulent act of acquiring private and sensitive information, such as credit card numbers, personal identification and account usernames and passwords.  
22 Prostitution of children “The use of children in sexual activities for remuneration or any other form of consideration.” The optional protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography, Article 2(b) (The new Terminology Guidelines recommend this term should not be used, and that “exploitation of children in prostitution” should be used instead. UNICEF-Child-Protection-Online-India-pub_doc115-1(Page 17-19)  
23 Sexting Self-production and posting of intimate pictures, sexually explicit conversations, posting/sharing of intimate pictures. UNICEF-Child-Protection-Online-India-pub_doc115-1(Page 17-19) Taking, sending or receiving a sexy image of a person under 18 can be illegal in some States – even if it’s of yourself!If you or the other person is under 18 you could end up in trouble with the law as it can be considered ‘child pornography’When you send a nude photo of yourself to someone, what happens to it and where it goes next is often out of your control—–  
24 Social exclusion Using online platforms to message the target child that he or she is not included with the peer group and its social activities.    UNICEF-Child-Protection-Online-India-pub_doc115-1(Page 17-19)
25 Social media The collective of online communications channels dedicated to community-based input, interaction, content-sharing and collaboration. Websites and applications dedicated to forums, micro blogging, social networking, social bookmarking, social curation, and wikis are among the different types of social media.10 Facebook, Twitter, Google+, Wikipedia, LinkedIn and Pinterest are some of the social media platforms popular in India. UNICEF-Child-Protection-Online-India-pub_doc115-1(Page 17-19)  
26 Trafficking in persons “The recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or receipt of persons, by means of the threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, of abduction, of fraud, of deception, of the abuse of power or of a position of vulnerability or of the giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person, for the purpose of exploitation.”   UNICEF-Child-Protection-Online-India-pub_doc115-1(Page 17-19)

Read Valuable/Informative Articles Through Below Mentioned Link,_2000

Halder, D., & Jaishankar, K. (2011) Cyber crime and the Victimization of Women: Laws, Rights, and Regulations. Hershey, PA, USA: IGI Global. ISBN 978-1-60960-830-9

Ministry of Women and Child Development, Government of India

Crimes against children