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Social Science- Exam Preparation Tips for Getting Good Marks in

Exam Preparation Tips for Getting Good Marks in Social Science (

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Gender Equality-Sensitivity-How to Promote in ECCE-Early Childhood Care And Education

gender equality

Gender Equality-Sensitivity-How to Promote in ECCE-Early Childhood Care And Education

The early years lay the foundation for gender socialization. Gender Socialization is a process by which individuals learn to act in a particular way and mostly conforming to the societal beliefs, values, norms, attitudes and examples. Early gender socialization starts at birth and is a process of learning socio-cultural roles according to one’s gender. Right from the beginning, boys and girls are treated differently by the members of their family and immediate environment, and learn the differences between boys and girls. Even by the time children are two year old they have absorbed the gender stereotypes in some form which is evident because of clothing and toys chosen by adults and provided to them. As they reach preschool age, children begin to develop their sense of self in relation to others.

Certain gender inequities can persist right from infancy through the lifespan. Gender stereotypes may get perpetuated by family, teachers and society by having different expectations for girls and boys. However, early childhood period also presents a crucial opportunity to promote gender equity right from the start and facilitate the development of gender-sensitive attitudes and beliefs.

ECCE interventions can promote gender equity by compensating for gender biases in nutrition, health care or stimulation that may occur in the home. (Arnold, 2004:10). A gender sensitive curriculum needs to ensure that gender stereotypes are broken. In the early years it is important:

Adults are there to support, protect and involve children in approaches and activities that help them develop their minds, their bodies, their social skills and behaviours.

Caregivers should not perpetuate gender stereotypes. Instead, they should be encouraged to have equal and appropriate expectations of boys and girls and promote equal opportunities for them. They can provide opportunity to explore the children’s thinking about gender and help children expand their understanding of gender.

ECCE teachers /Caregivers have had gender training and know how to routinely do gender analysis. This equips them to see gender bias in the community and to actively keep it out of the classroom. Girls and boys receive equal attention and respect. It is ensured that during the day the tone of voice and comments given, wait time provided for answering questions, feedback provided, opportunity in classroom tasks are same for both boys and girls. As a result, they learn to value themselves and others equally. Equal treatment sends messages that each child is worthy and valued regardless of her or his sex or other differences.

Facilitate as much active learning as possible through play and other activities which are free of gender bias. Stories, songs, activities and facilitation aids should depict girls and boys in the same roles and men and women in all professions. Both women and men should appear as leaders, heroes and problem solvers etc.

Girls do some things that boys don’t do and some things more or less than the boys. So teachers/caregivers can explore what feelings girls and boys have, build the comfortboys and girls have different ideas, experiences and behaviours. However, preschoolers enjoy imitating adults and role plays are good ways for them to show the different things they do and know. Girls like to pretend to be boys or fathers and boys like to role play female roles. While enacting they understand the other sex and of both sexes in discussing their feelings too. As the educator treats each child well, it may be easier to get children to listen to each other, to share and to play respectfully.

There are few male ECCE teachers and Caregivers. Encourage male ECCE teachers so that learners will benefit from male role models.

The families and local community is encouraged to participate and support the programme. Parents need to be sensitized and educated so that they can support these practices at home. It is important here to help them understand and stop discrimination against boys or girls.

For Detail Reading -Please Visit—

National Early Childhood Care And Education (Ecce) Curriculum Framework

Ministry of Women and Child Development

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What is an activity-Early Childhood Care and Education-ECCE Curriculum Framework


What is an activity?

A good activity is a

• Part of a well-planned series of experiences identified by the teacher for the child for a particular learning area/areas and not an isolated learning experience.

• Where child is actively engaged physically and mentally.

• Challenging enough for the child so as to help her/ him practice and apply here/his skills and knowledge in a variety of ways, across many situations.• Enables children to learn in a joyful and interesting way.

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What is Play?- Early Childhood Care and Education Curriculum Framework


What is Play?


Play for a child is natural, spontaneous, enjoyable, rewarding and it is self-initiated. While children do not engage in play for its learning outcomes, yet it has been shown that play prompts growth and development.

In recent times play has been considered as a behavioural disposition that occurs in describable and reproducible contexts and is manifested in a variety of observable behaviours. (Fein & Vandenberg,1983). There are majorly four types of play such as

Functional Play: Children use their senses and muscles to explore and experiment with materials and learn how things go together. It satisfies children’s need to be active and to explore.


Constructive Play: Children learn use of different materials, put things together based on a plan, develop and use strategies of reaching their goal.

Dramatic or Pretend Play: Children take on a role, pretend to be someone else and use real or pretend objects to play out a role. Children re-enact they have experienced or watched earlier, use words and gestures and show the role they are playing.

Games with Rules: Children gradually learn to play with others, control their behaviour and conform to a structure of preset rules. However the focus is more on enjoyment rather than winning or losing and cooperative and collaborative games in which children play with each other than against each other.

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Multi-Age Grouping Importance and Benefit in ECCE-Early Childhood Care and Education

Early Childhood Care and Education


Multi-Age Grouping

In an ECCE centre there may be teachers who struggle with ways to meet the needs of all the learners in their classrooms. Alternately there may be some children who struggle with learning, others who perform well on their developmental tasks, and the rest fit somewhere in between. Each child has its own pace of learning. Within each of these categories of children, individuals also learn in a variety of ways and have different interests. However the curriculum used is most often driven by ‘one size fits all’ approach and with the expectations that all children will achieve the standards by the end of the academic year.

In response to this situation most often ECCE teachers and caregivers would use the concept of ‘differentiation’ to meet the varying needs of their learners. At its most basic level, differentiation consists of the efforts of ECCE teacher/ Caregiver to respond to variance among learners in the classroom. An ECCE Teacher / Caregiver may approach differentiation by (1) content—what the child needs to learn or how the child will get access to the information; (2) process—activities in which the child engages in order to make sense of or master the content; (3) products—culminating projects that enable the child to rehearse, apply, and extend what he or she has learned in a topic; and (4) learning environment—the way the classroom/ ECCE centre works and feels.

There is ample evidence that children are more successful in school and find it more satisfying if they are taught in ways that are responsive to their readiness levels, interests and learning profiles (Tomlinson, 2000). So it may be helpful for children work sometimes with like-readiness peers, sometimes with mixed-readiness groups, sometimes with children who have similar interests, sometimes with children who have different interests, sometimes with peers who learn as they do, sometimes randomly, and often with the class as a whole.

In the above context, Multi-age grouping refers to “a class grouping in which students of different ages and identified age levels are grouped together in a single classroom for the purpose of providing effective instruction” (Miller, 1995, p. 29). The multi-age environment is deliberately created for the benefit of children, not because of economic needs or declining enrolment. The intention is to allow children of various ages and abilities to progress at their own individual pace rather than according to specified objectives for a particular grade level.

mixed  age group -Lilian Katz

Research shows that multi-age groupings benefit both younger and older students in the classroom. According to Dr. Lilian Katz, “Mixed-age grouping resembles family and neighbourhood groupings, which throughout history have informally provided much of children’s socialization and education. The intention of mixed-age grouping in early childhood settings is to increase the heterogeneity of the group so as to capitalize on the differences in the experience, knowledge, and abilities of the children”. Moreover, children learn from each other and from older children- thereby facilitating cooperative learning skills. In rural areas multi-age grouping is more often a pragmatic response to the needs of communities, where it is practical to set up a single Anganwadi/ ECCE centre for a village or settlement. Various reasons such as insufficient students of a similar age, places with limited physical or human resources may seem viable to have a multi-age grouping in the ECCE centres.

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Principles of Early Learning and Development and its Implications for Practice -Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE) Curriculum Framework

Principles of Early Learning and Development and its Implications for Practice

Principles of Early Learning and Development and its Implications for Practice -Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE) Curriculum Framework

The principles and practices relevant for learning and development in the early years are based on the insights and observations of thinkers and evidences from researches. Each of the principle elaborates specific ideas and at the same time they are all interconnected like the domains of development. The practical implications for each of the principle will also be influenced by the culture and individual prerequisites.

3.1 Development and learning takes place in all domains, development in one domain influences the other domain:

Children are thinking, feeling and interacting human beings and it is important to address all domains for their development. Changes or development in one domain facilitates or hinders the development of another domain.

3.2 Children’s development and learning follows a sequence in which later acquired abilities (skills and concepts) build upon what children already know and apply.

In the first few years of life the growth, change and development mostly follow a predictable pattern; however the way these changes are demonstrated varies in different context and culture. Knowledge of known sequence of development enables in developing early stimulation activities and curricular planning for children.

3.3 Child Development and Learning are characterized by individual variation:

While learning and development follows a predictable pattern there may be individual variation in the normative course of development as well as uniqueness of each child as an individual. No two children, even within the same family are the same. Each child has an individual pattern and timing of growth and development as well as individual styles of learning. Each individual child has his/her own strengths.

3.4 Children develop holistically and benefit from experiential learning:

This simply means that children learn best through active exploration using the senses such as touch, taste, smell and manipulation to build perceptual skills. Children should be actively interested and engaged in their learning with a high sense of motivation and positive disposition to explore and build skills across various domains.

3.5 Learning begins from birth:

From birth onwards children are mentally and physically active. They learn through all their senses and stimulations. Early care and stimulations whether positive or negative have a cumulative impact on children’s development. Since care and early stimulation promotes brain development and leads to the forming neural connections, it is imperative that children are provided with optimal stimulation in the early years and prevent cumulative deficit in the long run.

3.6 Development and learning result from a continuous interaction of biological maturation and experience.

A child has genetic endowments which may predict healthy growth, but inadequate nutrition in the early years of life will keep this potential from being fulfilled. On the other hand if the child is suffering from an inherent condition, then the detrimental impact learning and development can be minimized through systematic, individualized intervention. With this perspective in mind, it is important for early childhood educators to maintain high expectations and employ all their knowledge, ingenuity, and persistence to find ways to help every child succeed.

3.7 There are critical periods in development:

Research evidences reveal that some aspects of development occur most efficiently at certain points in the life span. For example the optimal period for oral language development in children is in the first three years of life, peer social skills are developed effectively during 3-5 years of life etc. Thus it is important to use these “windows of opportunity” and ensure that the children get the needed environmental inputs and supports for a particular kind of learning and development at its “prime time” for desired outcomes.

3.8 Children’s learning reflects a recurring spiral that begins in awareness, and moves to exploration, to inquiry, and finally, to application:

Any new learning by children begins with awareness, which is generated from their experiences with objects, events, or people and ends with utilization, where children are able to use what they have learnt for multiple purposes and apply their learning to new situations. At this stage children start exploring the next level of information and the spiral continues. Children with disabilities show a great degree of individual variations and the curriculum should make suitable adaptations to ensure that children are provided developmentally appropriate materials and experiences.

3.9 Children learn and develop in a stimulating/nurturing/supportive/protective environment:

During the early years of life, children move from sensory or behavioural responses to symbolic or representational knowledge. They learn within a social context and from meaningful interactions with other children, adults and materials around them. Throughout the early years, adults must provide a nurturing environment and play significant roles in helping children learn to develop empathy and cooperation, cultural socialization and self-regulation, language acquisition and communication, peer relationships, self- concept and identity formations.

3.10. Development and learning is largely influenced by the social and cultural context of the children.

Development and learning of children happens hand in hand and it largely depends on the influence of the child’s family, immediate environment, the community and at a broader level the society. Every culture has its own norms, structures and behaviours and more so each culture has its own way of interpreting children’s behaviour and development in its own way. Educators must be sensitive how their own culture has shaped their thinking and also consider the multiple environments in which different children live and how they need to be considered while making decision for children’s development and learning.

3.11 Children’s have curiosity and desire to learn:

Children are curious and have an innate desire to learn. Children observe what happens, talk, discuss and reflecting on their findings, stretch their imagination for possibilities, ask questions, and formulate answers. While exploring and learning young children construct their knowledge and understanding of the world, they learn as well as from teachers, family members, peers and older children, and from books and other media. To enable these ECCE teachers/caregivers must use multiple teaching strategies in meeting children’s different learning needs.

3.12 Children learn through play:

 Play is central to the child’s well-being and development. Children’s spontaneous play provides opportunities for exploration, experimentation, manipulation and problem solving that are essential for constructing knowledge. Play contributes to the development of representational as well as abstract thought. Children engage in various kinds of play, such as physical play, language play, object play, pretend or dramatic play, constructive play, and games with rules. This further influences their motivation, disposition and approaches to learning. Developing positive approaches to learning goes a long way to determine later academic success in life. Adults must provide opportunities for children to explore play and apply.

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Ministry of Women and Child Development

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ECCE-Objectives of Early Childhood Care and Education-National ECCE Curriculum Framework

Early Childhood Care and Education


Early Childhood Care and Education

Objectives of Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE)

The aim of Early Childhood Care and Education is to facilitate optimum development of the child’s full potential and lay the foundation for all round development and lifelong learning. While parents and home have the main responsibility of the welfare of the child, a strong partnership between the community and the ECCE centres is important for the well-being of the child and in achieving the following objectives.

Broad objectives of the Early Childhood Care and Education programme are to:

  1. Ensure each child is valued, respected, feels safe and secure and develops a positive self-concept
  2. Enable a sound foundation for physical and motor development of each child- as per each child’s potential
  3. Imbibe good nutrition routines, health habits, hygiene practices and self-help skills
  4. Enable children for effective communication and foster both receptive and expressive language
  5. Promote development and integration of the senses
  6. Stimulate intellectual curiosity and develop conceptual understanding of the world around by
  7. providing opportunities to explore, investigate and experiment
  8. Enhance development of pro-social skills, social competence and emotional well being
  9. Develop sense of aesthetic appreciation and stimulate creative learning processes.
  10. Imbibe culturally and developmentally appropriate behaviour and core human values of respect and love for fellow human beings.
  11. Enable a smooth transition from home to ECCE centre to formal schooling
  12. Enhance scope for overall personality development

The purpose of this framework is to promote quality and excellence in early childhood care and education by providing guidelines for child care and early educational practices.

Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE) encompass the inseparable elements of care, health, nutrition, play and early learning within a protective and enabling environment. It is an indispensable foundation for lifelong development and learning, and has lasting impact on early childhood development.

Children also differ in their physical, emotional, social, and cognitive capacities. Each child requires a safe and nurturing environment to develop optimally.

Regardless of income, social status, geographic isolation, and other potential barriers, all children deserve and have a right to inclusive and equitable opportunities to build on their unique strengths.



Ministry of Women and Child Development

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Aim of the CISCE Curriculum-The Council for the Indian School Certificate Examinations

The Council for the Indian School Certificate Examinations (CISCE) 
The Council for the Indian School Certificate Examinations (CISCE)

The Council for the Indian School Certificate Examinations (CISCE)

About The Council

The Council has been so constituted as to secure suitable representation of: Government of India, State Governments/Union Territories in which there are Schools affiliated to the Council, the Inter-State Board for Anglo-Indian Education, the Association of Indian Universities, the Association of Heads of Anglo-Indian Schools, the Indian Public Schools’ Conference, the Association of Schools for the ISC Examination and members co-opted by the Executive Committee of the Council. (

Aim of the CISCE Curriculum

The curriculum aims to enable children to:

  1. become successful learners who enjoy learning;
  2. successfully apply core concepts learnt from various subjects;
  3. understand texts of different subjects so as to communicate knowledge and ideas in ways specific to the subject;
  4. articulate thoughts and ideas effectively using oral, written and nonverbal communication skills in a variety of forms and contexts;
  5. use technology to access and provide information and to communicate with others;
  6. understand cross-curricular linkages- connect learning across subject areas;
  7. become confident individuals who are able to live safe, healthy and fulfilling lives;
  8. become responsible citizens who make a positive contribution to society;
  9. understand and apply knowledge to real life experiences;
  10. develop a sense of responsibility towards others;
  11. function successfully in the local and world community;
  12. respect diversity (in terms of religion, gender, regions, etc. and differences of opinions and beliefs);
  13. exhibit sensitivity towards environmental issues;

The curriculum is child centered and encourages an integrated approach, where children see linkages across various curricular areas and are able to relate classroom learning to real life situations. Taking into account different learning styles, the curriculum suggests a range of pedagogical processes which can be adapted by the teacher, based on their needs and contexts and the requirements of the children. The curriculum focuses on learning by doing and learning through interaction with others, giving children opportunities to construct their own knowledge. Emphasis has also been placed in the curriculum on development of life skills. The curriculum encourages an inclusive approach and aims at bringing out the potential of each child.


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Letter to Students from CBSE New Delhi for Board Appearing School Students


Dear Children,

You never realize what you have until its gone. A chocolate pastry is a good example, but here we mean the joys of your schooling years. While 18,27,472 of you who are taking the Xth Board exams will continue on your journey of discovery and exploration in school, for 12,87,359 of you who are taking the XIIth Board exams, there are higher institutions of learning awaiting your knock on their doors.

School for sure denotes typical stuff, like a campus, classrooms, teachers, subjects, sports, art, the wall magazine, friends, homework, projects, tests,…and what not. But most of all it is the place where we learn how to learn. The schooling years are the best years for scholarship and education because our Hard Disc space (to use a metaphor) is the most receptive in these years. School is the place where you let your mind’s Web Browser loose and driven by your inquisitiveness, hard work and hunger for knowledge, knowingly or unknowingly, you Download several competencies and life skills. There are Messengers (mentors) to help you identify the Spams, if any, and the Bandwidth of learning is fast and vast. School is perhaps the one place in life where the Auto-correct, Backspace, Pause, Shift or Delete options are abundant and add value to your education.

At the end of a school level, secondary or senior secondary, it is the rigour of the board exams and the way you prepare for it, that makes you ready to face the multiple challenges that might come your way in your adult life. You are now at exactly that penultimate stage, where you are trying your best to Firewall all distractions and concentrating on studying for your exams. However, we can sense in you some apprehensions about whether you will rise up to various expectations – yours and of others. We also feel that you are seeking meaning in what you are doing and are anxious about what the future holds for you, while questioning what exams are all about, and why the fun and games have to temporarily go to Random Access Memory.

Well, at this very moment too, while studying hard for the exams, you are actually building your character and weaving meaning into your lives. John Gardner had a way with words and this is what he had to say – “Meaning is not something you stumble across, like the answer to a riddle or the prize in a treasure hunt. Meaning is something you build into your life. You build it out of your own past, out of the experience of humankind as it is passed on to you, out of your own talent and understanding, out of the things you believe in. The ingredients are there. You are the only one who can put them together into that unique pattern that will be your life. Let it be a life that has dignity and meaning for you. If it does, then the particular balance of success or failure is of less account.”

Contd.2/- -2- These exams are therefore not a measure of success or failure. They are like URLs (Uniform Resource Locators) of your life, that are meant to help you locate the real possibilities and resources that lie within you, by optimising the knowledge Search Engine inside you. The ‘future you’ will not even remember the marks you will get in these exams, but this unleashing of your own highest potential and capabilities and the voyage you undertook for learning, will be etched in your memory forever. Be unstoppable in your flight towards the ‘future you’.

Meanwhile, we at CBSE, wish you a life of learning; we wish you a life filled with curiosity, creativity, care and packed with meaning. May the days that you spend working hard for exams be the Routers for a beautiful and fulfilling life.

You are unique. Pour your uniqueness into every aspect of your life, including the way you prepare for and deal with exams. Face (your) Books. Insta your studies. Do your best. Stay sharp. You were born to be awesome, not perfect! All the very best to all our #studentunstoppables!


13th February, 2019

Copy & Paste from CBSE Letter